Looking at Psalm 110 and Hebrews chapter 7

Christian Doctrine and the importance of Psalm 110 before looking at the book of Hebrews. Part 1

We will do some background reading on snippets from Psalm 110 before starting Hebrews chapter 7.  The interpretation I am giving to it is a Christological bent to it and this fits in with the book of Hebrews. we will then move on to look at Our Saviour Jesus who is a priest according to the order of Melchizedek and what this means in practice for Christians.

Psalm 110  is very interesting in that we have seen that the messiah has two functions. 

Verse 1

1 The LORD says to my Lord:

“Sit at My right hand

Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet.” Psalms 110:1

This Psalm is unquestionably a Psalm of David.  In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus had defeated the Sadducees in argumentation.  The Pharisees heard about this and they came to trick Jesus.  This conversation is below:

41 Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question: 42 “What do you think about the [w]Christ? Whose son is He?” They *said to Him, “The son of David.” 43 He *said to them, “Then [x]how does David [y]in the Spirit call Him ‘Lord,’ saying,

44

‘The Lord said to my Lord,

“Sit at My right hand,

Until I put Your enemies under Your feet”’?

45 Therefore, if David calls Him ‘Lord,’ [z]how is He his son?” 46 No one was able to offer Him a word in answer, nor did anyone dare from that day on to ask Him any more questions. “(Taken from https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew%2022&version=NASB)

Obviously, this text originally related to king David, but it also relates to the ‘institution of King David’ as an office. Jesus interprets this literally JHWH (Ha Shem; The Lord) speaks to (ADONAI The lord).  Although David was a Messiah (anointed king) David interpreted it as David’s greater King (Messiah).  For Jewish Christians and gentiles of the time this could be no other than our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.  For Jesus and the Pharisees this Royal Psalm had a prophetic element.

According to Jewish Law King David was barred from priestly functions of the Aaronic line. Only a priest could make sacrifices.   Although it is tempting to say that King David ‘sacrificed’

Read 2 Samuel 24:18-25. I think it is better to read this that the sacrifice was at the cost of King David’s purse and that the priests actually did the sacrificing.  David followed God’s command for this.  King Saul also did this but he did it outside of the remit of Gods command and the throne was taken from him. Read 2 Samuel 24:18-25

Chrsitopher R Smith wrote:

“This disobedience did lead Saul to usurp a privilege of the priesthood.  As I discuss in this post, by offering these sacrifices, Saul was imitating the Canaanite priest-king model instead of respecting the separation between the kingship and the priesthood that was established in the law of Moses.” (from https://goodquestionblog.com/2014/09/08/why-did-god-reject-saul-for-offering-sacrifices-but-not-david-or-solomon/)

In Psalm 110 it is the first time that kingship and the priesthood could be officiated under one person and it is not in the Aaronic line of priests. As the text says:

4 The LORD has sworn and will not change His mind,

“You are a priest forever

According to the order of Melchizedek.” Psalms 110:4 (NASB Olive tree Bible sorftware).

Apollos is correct to point back to Abraham.  In the book of Genesis we read:

17 Then after his return from the defeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley). 18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest of God Most High. 19 He blessed him and said,

“Blessed be Abram of God Most High,

Possessor of heaven and earth;

20 And blessed be God Most High,

Who has delivered your enemies into your hand.”

He gave him a tenth of all. 21 The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give the people to me and take the goods for yourself.” 22 Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have sworn to the LORD God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth, 23 that I will not take a thread or a sandal thong or anything that is yours, for fear you would say, ‘I have made Abram rich.’ 24 I will take nothing except what the young men have eaten, and the share of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their share.” Genesis 14:17-24 (NASB Olive tree bible software)

After this story we never hear anything of Melchizedek again in the pages of Genesis.  Psalm 110 gives the office of Melchizedek to the Messiah (For Christians, Jesus Christ). 

Stephen Lawson makes the point that in Christ there will be a first time that; “This will be the first time that one person will serve as both priest and king”.

“The Priestly Redemption of Christ (110:4) SUPPORTING IDEA: David declares that Christ will be appointed as a priest by God. 110:4a. The LORD, God the Father, has sworn to himself that he will send his Son into this world to be a priest. This will be the first time that one person will serve as both priest and king. A priest was one who represented the people before God. Yet the people did not choose their own representative. To the contrary, God the Father ordained his chosen leaders to the priesthood. In like manner, Christ is designated by the Father to this redemptive mission. Regarding this appointment of Christ to this saving work, God will not change his mind. His eternal purposes are fixed and unchanging” (Acts 2:23; 1 Pet. 1:20; Rev. 13:8; 17:8).  (From Lawson, Steven. Holman Old Testament Commentary – Psalms 76-150: Volume 12 . B&H Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.)

Enough has been said on Psalm 110.  I would like to revisit Psalm 110 sometime to dig even deeper but for now I think this is enough.  This discussion is open to public dialogue of anyone.  We also need to be sympathetic to Jewish interpretations although possibly we will not agree.

Reflection

Psalm 110 is a Royal Psalm, and it is a Psalm of David.  We need to remember that the priestly functions and kingly functions of the kings of Israel were always separate.  This Psalm takes a strand from Genesis 14 when Abraham after defeating the kings of Israel met Melchizedek and gave thanks and homage to God the Most High.   

Jesus proved to the Pharisees that King David wasn’t talking about himself but about another king (Messiah).  For Christians Jesus has both functions of High Priest and King but not in the Aaronic line but Melchizedek.   This is the first time in Jewish Christian history that one person can hold both offices of priest and king at the same time.

Interpreting Hebrews chapter 712-28 and Jesus’ office of High Priest and King (Messiah) part 2

Let us begin by reading this section first:

11 Now if perfection was through the Levitical priesthood (for on the basis of it the people received the Law), what further need was there for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not be designated according to the order of Aaron? 12 For when the priesthood is changed, of necessity there takes place a change of law also. 13 For the one concerning whom these things are spoken belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 14 For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, a tribe with reference to which Moses spoke nothing concerning priests. 15 And this is clearer still, if another priest arises according to the likeness of Melchizedek, 16 who has become such not on the basis of a law of physical requirement, but according to the power of an indestructible life. 17 For it is attested of Him,

“YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER

ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK.” Hebrews 7:11-17

Psalm 110 is a main stay of prophecy in the New Testament.  Apollos really brings out what this actually means.  For Judaism the main stay is the law through the Aaronic line and nothing in Judaism has changed this way.  However, Melchizedek as an order of priesthood has been mentioned.  The Psalms and Genesis are Holy Scripture to along with the five books of Moses, so these texts carry tremendous weight.   It is the case that hundreds of priests from Herod’s Temple became obedient to the faith (Acts 6):

“7 The word of God kept on spreading; and the number of the disciples continued to increase greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many of the priests were becoming obedient to the faith.” Acts 6:7

Apollos is starting to state facts about our Lord that he was from ‘Judah’ (a non-priestly tribe).

11 Now if perfection was through the Levitical priesthood (for on the basis of it the people received the Law), what further need was there for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not be designated according to the order of Aaron? Hebrews 7:11

Apollos is suggesting that perfection could not be found from the Aaronic line of priests.   He points out that there are two orders:

12 For when the priesthood is changed, of necessity there takes place a change of law also. Hebrews 7:12

Laws can ‘change’ if the order changes.  This will become an important point in his discussion.

13 For the one concerning whom these things are spoken belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 14 For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, a tribe with reference to which Moses spoke nothing concerning priests. Hebrews 7:13-14

Jesus is not from the Aaronic line. Jesus was descended from Judah, and he has no qualifications for this priesthood of Aaron which Moses spoke about.  Jesus is disqualified from this priesthood.

15 And this is clearer still, if another priest arises according to the likeness of Melchizedek, 16 who has become such not on the basis of a law of physical requirement, but according to the power of an indestructible life. 17 For it is attested of Him,

“YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER

ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK.” Hebrews 7:15-17

The requirement for the second type of priesthood is an ‘indestructible life= forever’.  Jesus is the only one in the history of humanity that fulfils this criterion.

 18 For, on the one hand, there is a setting aside of a former commandment because of its weakness and uselessness 19 (for the Law made nothing perfect), and on the other hand there is a bringing in of a better hope, through which we draw near to God. 20 And inasmuch as it was not without an oath 21 (for they indeed became priests without an oath, but He with an oath through the One who said to Him,

“THE LORD HAS SWORN

AND WILL NOT CHANGE HIS MIND,

‘YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER’”); Hebrews 7:18-21

Two things are going on here.

For Apollos, In Jesus the emphasis of priesthood has changed.   As far as mainline Judaism is concerned, I can understand why Judaism and Christianity split.  The seeds are right here in this text.  Modern Judaism would see this as apostasy from Judaism because it shifted the priesthood away from Aaron and would be perceived as heresy.   

22 so much the more also Jesus has become the guarantee of a better covenant. Hebrews 7:22

23 The former priests, on the one hand, existed in greater numbers because they were prevented by death from continuing, Hebrews 7:23

The Aaronic priesthood was necessary because their posts needed to be changed regularly through death. It was an imperfect arrangement.

24 but Jesus, on the other hand, because He continues forever, holds His priesthood permanently. Hebrews 7:24

25 Therefore He is able also to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them. Hebrews 7:25

Jesus has an indestructible life and because of this reason, he is always there interceding on our behalf.

26 For it was fitting for us to have such a high priest, holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners and exalted above the heavens; 27 who does not need daily, like those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the sins of the people, because this He did once for all when He offered up Himself. 28 For the Law appoints men as high priests who are weak, but the word of the oath, which came after the Law, appoints a Son, made perfect forever. Hebrews 7:26-28

The most important thing in this section I think is where the writer says:

Obviously, this was a process that started in Babylon with the birth of the synagogues and later with the destruction of the Temple the Aaronic priesthood was as good as dead. 

Reflection

There are a lot of well-intentioned Christians who are hoping that the ‘Third Temple’ of Ezekiel will be built and to celebrate it.  The Third Temple uses the Aaronic priesthood.   I have to say that according to the book of Hebrews Christians have their High Priest in a different priesthood, namely the order of Melchizedek.   Jesus is high priest of an order that is not part of the Aaronic covenant.  The Oath came after the time of the Law (10 commandment) and it overwrites the old Mosaic covenant.  The main points of this section are:

Psalm 110  is very interesting in that we have seen that the messiah has two functions. 

  • As King of Israel
  • As priest

There are two orders:

  • Order of Aaron
  • Order of Melchizedek

Two things are going on here.

  • The law made nothing perfect, and it was time for change.
  • With the change of priesthood comes a new hope.

The new covenant means:

  • This is a new covenant that displaces the old Aaronic priesthood.
  • Jesus is the guarantor of this new covenant.
  • Contrasted to the Aaronic priesthood Jesus’ priesthood is superior as there is no change of post because there is no death.

The most important thing in this section I think is where the writer says:

  • but the word of the oath, which came after the Law, appoints a son.
  • Psalm 110 has a prophetic dimension as Jesus said (David in the Spirit said)
  • And an Oath concerning the Son of God that overwrites the Law of Moses to the effect that the Aaronic priesthood is not important anymore.

Jesus is our great High Priest, and his priesthood is based upon the promise found in psalm 110:

4 The LORD has sworn and will not change His mind,

“You are a priest forever

According to the order of Melchizedek.” Psalms 110:4

There has been a displacement of the old ways with the new and living way.   Hebrews is also the book of faith. 

Psalm 110 in other places of the New Testament

Psalm 110 is a key text and its influence is everywhere in the new testament.  Here are some proof texts that back up what Apollos says in the book of Hebrews.

Luke 20:42

39 Some of the scribes answered and said, “Teacher, You have spoken well.” 40 For they did not have courage to question Him any longer about anything.

41 Then He said to them, “How is it that they say the Christ is David’s son? 42 For David himself says in the book of Psalms,

‘THE LORD SAID TO MY LORD,

“SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND,

43 UNTIL I MAKE YOUR ENEMIES A FOOTSTOOL FOR YOUR FEET.”’

44 Therefore David calls Him ‘Lord,’ and how is He his son?”

45 And while all the people were listening, He said to the disciples, 46 “Beware of the scribes, who like to walk around in long robes, and love respectful greetings in the market places, and chief seats in the synagogues and places of honor at banquets, 47 who devour widows’ houses, and for appearance’s sake offer long prayers. These will receive greater condemnation.” Luke 20:39-47Acts 2:34

For it was not David who ascended into heaven, but he himself says: ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand,

64 Jesus *said to him, “You have said it yourself; nevertheless I tell you, hereafter you will see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN.” Matthew 26:64

62 And Jesus said, “I am; and you shall see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING WITH THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN.” Mark 14:62

69 But from now on THE SON OF MAN WILL BE SEATED AT THE RIGHT HAND of the power OF GOD.” Luke 22:69

31 He is the one whom God exalted to His right hand as a Prince and a Savior, to grant repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. Acts 5:31

55 But being full of the Holy Spirit, he gazed intently into heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God; 56 and he said, “Behold, I see the heavens opened up and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.” Acts 7:55-56

34 who is the one who condemns? Christ Jesus is He who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us. Romans 8:34

20 which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. 22 And He put all things in subjection under His feet, and gave Him as head over all things to the church, 23 which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all. Ephesians 1:20-23

1 Therefore if you have been raised up with Christ, keep seeking the things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. 2 Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth. 3 For you have died and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 4 When Christ, who is our life, is revealed, then you also will be revealed with Him in glory. Colossians 3:1-4

Psalm 110:1 (Matt. 26:64; Mark 14:62; Luke 22:69; Acts 5:31; 7:55–56; Rom. 8:34; Eph. 1:20; Col. 3:1).

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