Archive for the ‘Hebrews course’ Category

Let us fix our eyes on Jesus; the Alpha and Omega, the Author and Perfector of our Faith; Hebrews chapter 12. 1-3

October 9, 2021

As we get closer to Winter the night starts to grow longer. However, every morning the sun comes up over the horizon and gives us some light.  As a spiritual lesson we can say that our faith gives us a preview of what is out of sight.  God in Christ is coming back for his children, and we will forever be in the Trinitarian presence of God. 

Verse 1A

Apollos has taken us on a wild journey of faith to the top of the mountains and to the flat plains.  The best is still yet to come! He is reminding us of all of these witnesses, and he uses a strange phrase, but it is very effective.  In the ‘great cloud of witnesses’, the word ‘cloud’ is a metaphor. When we think of a cloud it is something that is usually over our head. Perhaps by using this word the writer wanted to encourage the believers to stay strong in the faith. These witnesses lived by faith no matter what was thrown at them.  They believed and they walked the talk.  Perhaps I should have used ‘ran the talk’ because in these early verses in chapter 12, Apollos the writer uses a race analogy. 

Even as these Old Testament and New Testament witnesses were part of this cloud let us also follow in their footsteps on the road into God’s presence itself.

Verse 1B

“let us also lay aside every encumbrance and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us”

Every international racer has a goal, and he has to prepare for the great race.  You do not see many sprinters carrying a lot of luggage.  Weight slows a racer down thus there are not many larger racers.  The racer goes on a diet to lose as much fat as possible.  They practice every day and follow the doctor’s advice.  The day of the race comes they check their racing shoes.  The goal of the racer is to win that medal and fame.  The winner becomes famous overnight and the losers’ names go into oblivion.  That is how the world works but God does not work like that.

God is love and he has poured His love into our lives through the work of the Son our Lord Jesus Christ through the Holy Spirit.  We have entered into an eternal friendship. We too have a goal but our goal is not fame or fortune which does not last, it is to be with Christ for all eternity through the Holy Spirit’s guidance and the Fathers good pleasure.

The true race is a spiritual race.  Racers come and go, and they are like the flower in the garden that withers and falls and is not remembered anymore.  We grow old, fat, slow and then we realize that that was in the yester year. It does not matter how good a sprinter is, it is only at a moment in time and then the final curtain comes down.

We also have a goal in which moth and rust cannot destroy as Hebrews 12. 2a reminds us:

“Fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith,”.  What do we really fix our eyes on?

We ought to fix our eyes on Jesus because he is our Saviour and why should we fix our eyes on Jesus?  The rest of the verse explains this to us!

…the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. Hebrews 12:2

In the economy of the Trinity Jesus sits at the right hand of God the Father.  How Jesus must have suffered for us sinners. Remember Jesus is fully God and fully Man.  From his Divine side he would have seen ahead of time those nails being driven into his hands because of our rebellion and sinfulness towards God.  Yet Jesus also saw the prize.  The prize is not only that he sits at the right hand of God the Father but that he has enabled through his work to bring many sons and daughters with him into heaven itself.

The Writer then asks his listeners to consider the hostility Jesus himself faced:

“For consider Him who has endured such hostility by sinners against Himself, so that you will not grow weary and lose heart.” Hebrews 12:3

We get discouraged but the truth is that if anyone had a right to be discouraged, it would be the Son of God both in his divine and human nature.  Jesus sweated drops of blood, but he also went through the death penalty.  He was made a curse by hanging on a wooden stick.  No wonder that for a lot of Jews and Gentiles they would never consider Jesus as a Saviour.  We read this early in 1 Corinthians.

However, if we read verse 3 closely, we see an encouragement to stay strong in the faith:

“…so that you will not grow weary and lose heart.” Hebrews 12:3

Reflection

There are many good reasons why we should fix our eyes on Jesus.

  • Jesus is fully God and fully human
  • He is greater than all the angels
  • He is greater that Moses
  • He is High Priest of the real Temple in Heaven
  • He is the One True Sacrifice (The Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world)
  • You find your election in Him
  • Jesus loves you!

For me the Book of Hebrews takes us into the very throne room of God.  Let us be encouraged my friends to fall at the feet of Jesus for from him comes all the spiritual jewels that we could have asked for.

Notes

I got some ideas from John Calvin’s commentary.  His very sharp eye pointed out that ‘cloud’ was a metaphor.  I also enjoyed his description of the race.  The race motif I used however is completely my own.  The Bible I usually use is the NASB from Olive Tree Bible software

Bibliography

Calvin’s New Testament Commentaries; Hebrews 1 & 2 Peter;  Eerdmans; pages 187-189

Olive tree Bible software: NASB; especially Hebrews 12. 1-3

The Subject of Faith and the Perseverance of Faith no matter what Our End may be. An Overview of the Saints in Hebrews 11

September 30, 2021

Our examples of faith

In this chapter God has given us some great examples of faith.  As an overview I looked at the names of some of these faith warriors:

verses 1 -12

our faith or God’s faith or both

Abel, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Sarah

verses 13-

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Rahab

verse 32 list

Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets, Hebrews 11:32

As Paul wrote in Galatians that there is neither male nor female.  The topic of faith has no boundaries.  Let’s look at Paul talking about faith:

But before faith came, we were kept in custody under the law, being shut up to the faith which was later to be revealed. Therefore, the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith.  But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor. For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.  For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to promise. Galatians 3:23-29

Verse 28 is the key verse for us:

There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” NASB

The reason I brought this up is because did you notice that at the end of each list of heroes a woman is mentioned.  This is because faith knows no boundaries.  We have all been saved by grace and by the gift of faith.  Rahab for example was a prostitute and she is also found in the genealogy of king David and our Lord Jesus.  Although the world scoffs.  For example, Abel had faith and then he was murdered because of jealousy. Enoch did not even taste death! However, these examples of faith looked beyond the natural eye and trusted God.  They were completely convinced in the truth and love of God that there is something beyond this life. 

For these examples there is no old and New Testament.  The old and new testaments are one tapestry and what links us to these examples of faith is the gift of faith itself in Christ.  Why do I say these things?  Apollos explains to us in the text so we ought to read it with our eyes open:

13 All these died in faith, without receiving the promises, but having seen them and having welcomed them from a distance, and having confessed that they were strangers and exiles on the earth. 14 For those who say such things make it clear that they are seeking a country of their own. 15 And indeed if they had been thinking of that country from which they went out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; for He has prepared a city for them. Hebrews 11:13-16

Brothers and sisters, we have as a hope a heavenly place in God’s presence for ever! We need to believe this.  A lot of these examples of faith died hundreds of years before the time of the crucifixion and resurrection.  With the eye of faith however they saw the promises of God.  What about us.  We have seen the promises of God and we have historical, verifiable records that Jesus died and was raised from the dead.  We should be even more convinced about the truths of God’s word.  How convinced are of the truth of God’s promised in Christ? Would you put your life on the line like these ancient believers did?  Apollos gives us a taste of what they went through in  chapter 11:

32 And what more shall I say? For time will fail me if I tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets, 33 who by faith conquered kingdoms, performed acts of righteousness, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions, 34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made strong, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. 35 Women received back their dead by resurrection; and others were tortured, not accepting their release, so that they might obtain a better resurrection; 36 and others experienced mockings and scourgings, yes, also chains and imprisonment. 37 They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were tempted, they were put to death with the sword; they went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated 38 (men of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and holes in the ground. Hebrews 11:32-38

When one reads these experiences of these ancient believers, we ought to feel humbled.  We live fairly comfortably (in the West), and we can walk this walk of faith quite safely. Let us be thankful to God for what he did for us.  Apollos continues by saying:

 And all these, having gained approval through their faith, did not receive what was promised, because God had provided something better for us, so that apart from us they would not be made perfect. Hebrews 11:39-40

Believers, those who walk by faith are part of this tapestry of God. 

Reflection.

A lot of these believers by faith persevered under the most horrendous conditions.  They persevered to the ‘end’ whatever their end was going to be. Are we too convinced by the truths of the Gospel?  Are we convinced as believers about the promises of God?  In Christ God says yes to us and yes to life.  I sometimes wonder about the Jerusalem Church and what happened.  We do know though historically that the Jewish Christians left Jerusalem before it was flattened by the Romans in AD 70.  We owe these Jewish Christians a lot.  In the small time of Luke’s records in the book of Acts; St Paul, Barnabas, the twelve Apostles. These men were Jewish, and this faith went beyond the boundaries of ethnicity, gender, colour, social standing and every stratum of community. Let us not forget that Jesus was of very Jewish descent.  Christianity is not a religion of the West but of the Middle East. 

When we pray, we ought to be grateful for the channels God used for bringing life to his Church.  We ought to pray for everyone including Arabs and Jews.  In Christ there is no gentile or Jew! In Christ we love both. There is too much racism in the world and sad to say there is also racism in many religious institutions.   Let us also remember that the New Testament was also written by God fearing Jewish men.

This is me going on a tangent.  I suppose when you read some secular history from Josephus, one knows that James the Lord’s earthly brother was murdered in cold blood in Jerusalem.  As Christians today our roots are also from Jerusalem.  Jesus taught in the second Temple on the mount before it was destroyed.   The Church is made up of many nations and we are all one in Christ.

 I want to finish off by saying that sometimes a day can be grey and misty, but you still know the way to your destination.  On other days the sun might be shining, and you can see the way better. At other times, the sun might be too bright, but you still know the destination.  Christ is the way, and the world will throws obstacles in front of us but by faith we still know the way because Christ is the Way the Truth and the Life amen!

What is Real Faith from the point of view of the Book of Hebrews?

September 24, 2021

Last time we looked at the big idea of anaphora and how Apollos used it.  We also looked at the ‘faith’ statement and how it should be read.  Today we are just going to look at one verse:

3 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. Hebrews 11:3

The ‘world’, the theatre in which we live (and more ‘worlds’, ‘Ages’) is mentioned here and then we also have the seeing words; ‘seen’ and ‘visible’.  We also have the words ‘By faith’ which is what the believer is supposed to have.  There are a lot of things happening in this verse, a bit like an onion so figuratively speaking we need to unwrap the onion and get to the juicy truths of God’s word. So let us look at some of these layers:

  • Apollos’ use and understanding of world worlds.
  • Apollos’ use of visibility and invisibility

If one looks into a Bible encyclopaedia the word ‘world’ one can see many shades of meaning in both the Old Testament and the New Testament. Dr R. Alan Culpepper pointed out in the Holman bible dictionary three areas for how the word world can be defined:

  1. “The whole created order
  2. The earth and its inhabitants
  3. The arena of Human activity”

(Holman Bible dictionary; page 1420; world; by Dr R. Alan Culpepper; 1992 printing)

So, the question is how Hebrews uses the word ‘world’ and worlds.  Here is a list of all the references in Hebrews:

Hebrews

world

2 in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world. Hebrews 1:2

6 And when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says,

“AND LET ALL THE ANGELS OF GOD WORSHIP HIM.”

Hebrews 1:6

5 For He did not subject to angels the world to come, concerning which we are speaking. Hebrews 2:5

3 For we who have believed enter that rest, just as He has said,

“AS I SWORE IN MY WRATH,

THEY SHALL NOT ENTER MY REST,”

although His works were finished from the foundation of the world. Hebrews 4:3

26 Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself. Hebrews 9:26

5 Therefore, when He comes into the world, He says,

“SACRIFICE AND OFFERING YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED,

BUT A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED FOR ME; Hebrews 10:5

7 By faith Noah, being warned by God about things not yet seen, in reverence prepared an ark for the salvation of his household, by which he condemned the world, and became an heir of the righteousness which is according to faith.

Hebrews 11:7

38 (men of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and holes in the ground.

Hebrews 11:38

3 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. Hebrews 11:3

There are a lot of things going on in these verses, but we can seen that there is a strong doctrine of creation going on.   Our verse in chapter 11.3 can be translated as worlds or Ages.  God is the Creator and although we did not see the creation happen at the beginning, we certainly believe it.  Perhaps that is one layer of the onion ring

The other layer of our onion ring is this visibility invisibility thing going on in this chapter:

1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. Hebrews 11:1

3 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. Hebrews 11:3

7 By faith Noah, being warned by God about things not yet seen, in reverence prepared an ark for the salvation of his household, by which he condemned the world, and became an heir of the righteousness which is according to faith.

Hebrews 11:7

13 All these died in faith, without receiving the promises, but having seen them and having welcomed them from a distance and having confessed that they were strangers and exiles on the earth. Hebrews 11:13

Having looked at these verses with the ‘seen’ motif is to trust God with our whole heart.  We cannot see the end from the beginning but God who is infinite can. 

The amplified Bible puts it like this:

Hebrews 11:3 AMPC

By faith we understand that the worlds [during the successive ages] were framed (fashioned, put in order, and equipped for their intended purpose) by the word of God, so that what we see was not made out of things which are visible. (From: https://www.bible.com/bible/8/HEB.11.3.AMPC )

The Greek word actually is aeon which has the ‘time’ motif linked to it.  However, I think Apollos may have also had a deeper understanding of creation.  The idea of ‘ex nihilo’ creation out of nothing.  At the time that Hebrews was being written a few hundred years before and after there was an idea that matter was always around. Aeons were emanations over vast distances of time that supposed to have brought about the creation of the world.  Obviously, Apollos disagreed with that but agreed with the Biblical idea that God said, and it happened. 

Faith is about trusting God even in adversity.  It is very personal.  We didn’t see God create the world, but we certainly believe that he did.  In the same way in our own lives, we ought to live with this attitude and ‘certain hope’ that we are on course to be in God’s presence for all time.  Who created time in the first place?  God created it with the times and the seasons.  Scientists today peer into the night sky and think about the big bang.  Various Christians have different views on this.  The physical sciences are important, but they cannot help us in our relationship with God.  Our destiny is linked to another point in time, a tiny star above Bethlehem. 

A system that denies God for me is a corrupt system.  For Irenaeus the Gnostics were mythologising and this had in fact infiltrated the Church, so he put up a defence of the Christian faith.  I think there are analogies to aspects of the philosophy of science.   Being science, it works from the closed world of cause and effect.  Of course, this has been a great thing.  We have discovered many cures for various illnesses, and we have sent people to the moon.  There is also a darker side to this we have learned to be more effective killers through new types of weapons, and we have learned how to watch and keep an eye on the population and ‘forcing them’ to follow the wishes of those who are world leaders.  

Reflection

On the surface our situation might look hopeless and with natural seeing we would be crushed under despondency.  With the theory of evolution, we would buy into the idea of ‘everything is an accident’ and our purpose in life is at the throw of the dice.  We have no control over the numbers or the outcomes.   As we get older, we see our friends and relatives and even ourselves start to fall apart and we go to see the doctor more often.  Then the curtain comes down in the final act, we die, and our remains are turned into manure or something like that.  Forget about the soul this life was it!

No, no my friends!

I cannot buy into this my friends.  In Christ we trust.  God had a purpose in creating us and the world.  The purpose was that we would be in fellowship with God for all eternity.  There are no accidents.  This life is a preparation for all eternity.  Forget about accidents and dice as God is in control.  Although we cannot see beyond our noses, we know that Christ went through all the bad things so that in him we have a seriously bright future.  We might indeed visit the doctor more often; we might indeed be thrown into prison for no fault of our own.  This life is a training ground for something big, much bigger that we can comprehend or think.  Our Lord the Son of God through whom the world was made is our reason for living.  God is love and if God loves us then by trusting him, we will indeed live forever.  Overall, I can honestly say that Apollos sees our situation with ‘confidence’:

but Christ was faithful as a Son over His house—whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the boast of our hope firm until the end.

Hebrews 3:6

Therefore, let us draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

Hebrews 4:16

Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, Hebrews 10:19

Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. Hebrews 10:35

Although with the natural vision their situation might seem hopeless Apollos reminds them that these Jewish believers are citizens of God’s Kingdom.  We might see our situation hopeless but please you too need to remember that you are citizens of God Kingdom too so trust in Christ and walk your life in humble quiet confidence.

Fun Activity

According to Hebrews how should we walk the Christian walk?

Explain and use examples from the text to prove your point

Apollos’ use of Anaphora in Hebrews chapter 11 and his use of ‘By Faith’ in this Symphony of Encouragement for suffering servants of Christ.

September 17, 2021

Hebrews is indeed the book of faith with the only general definition in the whole of the New Testament.  However, we need to be wary not to take the definition out of context.  Faith is about trusting God on a daily basis.  It is not a formula for getting rich and wealthy in the material sense.  Anyhow Later on in the book of Hebrews Apollos writes:

Make sure that your character is free from the love of money, being content with what you have; for He Himself has said, “I WILL NEVER DESERT YOU, NOR WILL I EVER FORSAKE YOU,” Hebrews 13:5

Using Hebrews 11.1 as a pretext for material gain is out of the question!

Having said that Christ has lavished us with spiritual riches that this world cannot have except the Church.  In Christ by the Holy Spirit, He furnishes us with what we need in our onward walk to perfect holiness and to be in God’s presence for all eternity.  Even as Abraham had mountain and valley experiences, he stayed faithful to God to the very end, and we too ought to follow his example. 

So let us press forward in understanding the message of Hebrews.  I really didn’t know how to contextualize this powerful message in chapter 11, so I did some background reading and I found this:

“Each example in Heb 11:3-31 is united by means of anaphoric repetition of πιστει(at to the definition of faith in 11:1, which is also connected preceding exhortation to faithfulness in 10:19-39 by repetition of πιστις 10:39 and 11:1. To the definition of faith is added an assertion in 11:2 that people of old won God’s approval by their faith, and all of the examples 11:3-38 serve as proofs of the truth of this statement. Thus, the faith exhorted in 10:19-39 is the faith defined in 11:1 and the faith illustrated in 11:3-persuasiveness of this approach is increased by the implementation rhetorical techniques” (from JSTOR; JBL 107/2 (1988); pages 257-273; By Michael R Cosby)

Anaphora can be found in speeches and poems.  This example is from Martin Luther King’s speech:

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of “interposition” and “nullification” — one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.”

This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with.

With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

And this will be the day — this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning:

    My country ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride,    From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.”  (From the I have a dream speech; https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm)

So, the example above shows Martin Luther King using anaphoric style in his speech.  Apollos the writer used anaphoric style 2000 years earlier by using ‘By Faith…’ 18 times!  It is a rhetorical device to capture the listeners’ ear.  So to get a real feel for this chapter it would be a good thing to read it out loud and to put the stress on the first two words ‘by faith’.

We can also think about the context of Hebrews 11 as Cosby says in our first quote by Cosby:

“Thus, the faith exhorted in 10:19-39 is the faith defined in 11:1 and the faith illustrated in 11:3-persuasiveness of this approach is increased by the implementation rhetorical techniques”

(From; JSTOR; JBL 107/2 (1988); pages 257-273; By Michael R Cosby)”

As we were writing our commentary, we found out that Apollos wanted to encourage the believers who were suffering to stay true to Christ.  We then hit the definition and now Apollos illustrates the way of faith.  This is a powerful illustration to these Jewish Christians.  I can imagine being in the meeting where this letter was being read… ‘By faith…’. There are 18 ‘by faith’ sayings in this chapter and I am not planning to go through every single one.  However, it is important to get the main flavour of what Apollos is talking about.   Perhaps Hebrews 11 should be read like this to take into account the anaphoric use!

By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible.

By faith Abel offered to God a better sacrifice than Cain, through which he obtained the testimony that he was righteous, God testifying about his gifts, and through faith, though he is dead, he still speaks.

By faith Enoch was taken up so that he would not see death; AND HE WAS NOT FOUND BECAUSE GOD TOOK HIM UP; for he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to God. 6 And without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him.

By faith Noah, being warned by God about things not yet seen, in reverence prepared an ark for the salvation of his household, by which he condemned the world, and became an heir of the righteousness which is according to faith. Hebrews 11:3-7

When we start to understand the text, we then start to realize how beautiful this text was for the original readers. 

Reflection

My main aim this week was to answer the question of why Apollos would use ‘by faith’ in a single chapter eighteen times!  If you have read this blog today, then you can see how brilliant Apollos was with language.  We have also learned that the book of Hebrews was meant to be read out loud to the whole congregation.  So then even after 2000 years anaphoria is still being used in poetry.   Sometimes we hear great men such as Martin Luther King read their speeches but we don’t always see the brilliance they have in getting their message across. 

Living by faith is also about persevering in the faith.  These Jewish Christian believers were suffering but they persevered to the end.  How do we compare to these saints of old?

Fun Activity

Have a go at writing three verses of a poem using anaphora! 😊

Genuine Faith, Suffering and the Tangled Web of the Greedy Fake Faith

September 10, 2021

What type of Christians are we?  What is the relationship between faith and endurance?

These are important questions for us my friends.   In the preaching of sermons, it is very popular to go straight into Hebrews chapter 11 verse 1:

“Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval.” NASB

This to me is very childish and dangerous for our walk with God.  If you want ‘a spiritual adrenaline rush’ then perhaps you can have this.  My friends there is something a lot more valuable for the believer than any adrenalin rush.  It is our relationship in Christ by the Holy Spirit based on ‘the truth’.  If you are sick; Why take a placebo instead of the correct medication.  The correct medication is the medication that will heal our wondering soul.  I am not putting faith down, on the contrary I want the genuine faith that the Scriptures talk about.  If I am going to but jewellery for the person I love, let us buy the jewellery that is not fake. So then let us read our passage and gain genuine spiritual food for our souls that will bring us closer to Christ who is the true lover of our souls:

“32 But remember the former days, when, after being enlightened, you endured a great conflict of sufferings, 33 partly by being made a public spectacle through reproaches and tribulations, and partly by becoming sharers with those who were so treated. 34 For you showed sympathy to the prisoners and accepted joyfully the seizure of your property, knowing that you have for yourselves a better possession and a lasting one. 35 Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. 36 For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will of God, you may receive what was promised.

37 FOR YET IN A VERY LITTLE WHILE,

HE WHO IS COMING WILL COME, AND WILL NOT DELAY.

38 BUT MY RIGHTEOUS ONE SHALL LIVE BY FAITH;

AND IF HE SHRINKS BACK, MY SOUL HAS NO PLEASURE IN HIM.

39 But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction, but of those who have faith to the preserving of the soul.

The Triumphs of Faith

1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval.

3 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. Hebrews 10:32 – 11:3 NASB

Verse 32

Wow, forget about the mountain top experience.  Let us start in the valleys.  These Jewish Christians experiences start from suffering.  Imagine having your best friends and family thrown into prison for something they did not do.  Imagine a world in which you lose everything. The good faithful person may have been very wealthy but because you have different religious roots, what you have is taken away by corrupt local and national governments.  It may be that that person will be flogged and laughed at as a spectacle.  These sorts of experiences really did happen to Jewish Christians before AD 70 in Jerusalem.

I found this document this Week:

4 Flight of the Christians from Jerusalem, c. 66

Eusebius, HE, III.5.3

Moreover, the people of the church at Jerusalem, in accordance with a certain oracle that was vouchsafed by way of revelation to approved men there, had been commanded to depart from the city before the war, and to inhabit a certain city of Peraea. They called it Pella. And when those who believed in Christ had removed from Jerusalem, as if holy men had utterly deserted both the royal metropolis of the Jews itself and the whole land of Judaea, the Justice of God then visited upon them all their acts of violence to Christ and his apostles, by destroying that generation of wicked persons root and branch from among men. (Lawlor and Oulton, Eusebius, 1, p. 68.)

Epiphanius also records this flight. A comparison of his account with that of Eusebius shows a common source, which is undoubtedly Hegesippus. The words in italics appear to come from him. Pella was beyond Jordan, and was then in the dominions of Herod Agrippa II. The Christians in Jerusalem could not be expected to show any sympathy to, or receive any from Jewish nationalists, cf. 19. For difficulties about a flight to Pella see S. G. F. Brandon, The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church, pp. 169–73

(Taken from A New Eusebius; J.Stevenson; SPCK; 1987; pages 5 & 6 )

This all happened in AD 66, four years before the Fall of Jerusalem. In my hypothesis then if these Jewish Christians were from Jerusalem.   (Some scholars think it could have been Rome but I disagree as you would have seen the reasons last Week)

Verses 32 -34

This is persecution my friends.  It wasn’t the first time, and it would not be the last time either. In AD 49 there was a great expulsion of Christians from Rome. In AD 62 James was murdered by someone who had it in for the Christians. In AD 96 there was another great persecution by Domitian.

 Therefore, these believers suffered and shared in these sufferings.  These believers had real confidence in Christ.   Material wealth wasn’t the most important thing; The most important thing was to put Christ first in their lives and to show real genuine love to their spiritual brothers and sisters.  Throw the ‘get rich quick Gospel’ away from you; that is fake Christianity and draws on ‘greed’ which is actually a great sin.

Verse 35

Apollos writes:

35 Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. Hebrews 10:35

This word ‘confidence’ comes up in other places as well in this precious book.  We are going on a small diversion in our route and have a look at these verses before we ramble on from verse 36. We need at the outset say that faith and confidence are linked but we need to remind ourselves that the context of this confidence is driven from the suffering that these Jewish Christians were facing.  We also need to remember that verse numbers and chapters were a later addition to our Bible.  The autographs we have even didn’t have full stops.  One sentence would run into another and unless you were an expert, one would not know when the sentence would change.  We sometimes take our Bibles for granted with the chapters and verses.

Confidence

In this verse we can see that there is a timeline.  We are to stay faithful to Christ to ‘the end’ of time.

but Christ was faithful as a Son over His house—whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the boast of our hope firm until the end.

Hebrews 3:6

Our confidence comes from what Christ did for us.  Grace flows from Christ.  Our confidence is in Christ.

Therefore, let us draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

Hebrews 4:16

It is through the sacrificial work of Christ that we can have ‘any confidence’

Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, Hebrews 10:19

So, then we can safely say that all the previous uses of confidence has been in relation to ‘confidence in Christ’

Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. Hebrews 10:35

The walk towards the faith chapter has begun. Our confidence and our faith are to be located in Christ.  This is a relationship we have of being in Christ by the special work of the Holy Spirit. The ‘reward’ is not worldly wealth, but it is to be with Christ in heaven for ever.  This is the reward. Do not in any way link ‘this reward’ to money and wealth!

Verse 36

36 For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will of God, you may receive what was promised. Hebrews 10:36

For this ‘reward’ you need endurance.  You need to trust God in Christ to help you through these difficult times.  It isn’t going to be easy.  Martin Luther King was not rich and even though he was murdered his trust was in Christ.

Verse 37 to 38 the proof texts:

37 FOR YET IN A VERY LITTLE WHILE,

HE WHO IS COMING WILL COME, AND WILL NOT DELAY.

38 BUT MY RIGHTEOUS ONE SHALL LIVE BY FAITH;

AND IF HE SHRINKS BACK, MY SOUL HAS NO PLEASURE IN HIM. Hebrews 10:37-38

These are taken from Habakkuk 23-4

1 I will stand on my guard post

And station myself on the rampart;

And I will keep watch to see what He will speak to me,

And how I may reply when I am reproved.

2 Then the LORD answered me and said,

“Record the vision

And inscribe it on tablets,

That the one who reads it may run.

3 “For the vision is yet for the appointed time;

It hastens toward the goal and it will not fail.

Though it tarries, wait for it;

For it will certainly come, it will not delay.

4 “Behold, as for the proud one,

His soul is not right within him;

But the righteous will live by his faith. Habakkuk 2:1-4

It is well worth reading the original Hebrew because you can see the flavour of expectancy.  Be aware though that he might have used the Greek Old Testament (LXX) but the ideas are the same.  Our confidence is linked to faith and suffering.  As Herman Bavinck would say, “faith is the root, and the works are the fruit”. 

To put it bluntly no pain no gain my friends!   When it comes to faith, bin any greed doctrines of prosperity and rely on the love of Christ.  It is the relationship with God and not the dollar/Euro/Sterling!

Now we have a right understanding of the ‘confidence – faith’ relationship we are ready to cross the border from chapter 1039 into chapter 111:

39 But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction, but of those who have faith to the preserving of the soul.

The Triumphs of Faith

1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval. Hebrews 10:39 – 11:2

I decided to look at Hebrews chapter 10.39 through to 11.1.  There is no new topic in chapter 11.   ‘Faith’ is the bridge between the two chapters.  There are those who would indeed turn away from the Goodness of Christ.  Apollos however in verse 39 counts himself to be in union with the other believers to whom he wrote.  Notice Apollos wrote, “but we are not…” in verse 39.  The personal pronoun ‘we’ is in the fist person plural.  Apollos also in the same verse counts himself as one of those ‘who has faith’ which is linked to the preservation of the soul. So then up to this point, these believers showed that they had faith in Christ, and this could be proved by the very fact of all the sufferings and persecutions that they were going through.

It is a serious disservice to the book of Hebrews by ripping Apollos’ definition out of its context.   As background information we can begin by saying that If you read the latter part of chapter 10 and all of chapter 11 Apollos is linking the Old Testament saints to the Jewish Christians.  The thing that holds both groups together is ‘faith’.  This is important and this is the context.

The writer is continuing in the same topic with the conjunction ‘de’ translated as ‘now’ in a lot of translations.  It can also be translated as ‘and’ or but depending on context.   The job that this small conjunction doing is continuing on the same topic hence I would certainly prefer ‘and’.  The fuller account though is ‘εστιν δε’ ‘is and’ (literally).   With dynamic equivalence we have ‘now’.  You can use ‘Now’ as long as you don’t infer a change of subject.

In English usage a lot of time ‘now’ which is an adverb of time can be used to switch topic. This has probably led to this verse being interpreted wrongly.  Let us now look at some usages from the English language:

“A1

at the present time, not in the past or future:

She used to be a teacher, but now she works in publishing.

I may eat something later, but I’m not hungry now.

Many people now own a smartphone.

A2

immediately:

I don’t want to wait until tomorrow, I want it now!

B2

used to express how long something has been happening, from when it began to the present time:

She’s been a vegetarian for ten years now.”

(From: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/now )

If you read these sentences carefully one will see that there has been a qualitative change of action or situation to something else

A1

Teacher changes to publisher

Eat something later changes to not hungry now

Inferred that people at one time did not have smart phones and this changes to people who have smart phones.

An activity for you would be to go through the other examples.

If this happens in natural English language, then possibly the word ‘now’ is not a very good word to use at this point.  It sounds good but it brings logic external to the text (eisegesis and in this case although it works, it is a categorial mistake.  Better to have stuck with the boring and wooden ‘and’)

Calvin also agrees with me:

“Now faith, etc. Whoever made this the beginning of the eleventh chapter, has unwisely disjointed the context; for the object of the Apostle was to prove what he had already said ­that there is need of patience.” (From https://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/calvin/cc44/cc44016.htm  )

Anyhow I will append John Calvin’s commentary on Hebrews 11.1 in case you want to read it.

1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval. Hebrews 11:1-2

So looking at the verse again lets carry on digging the treasures.  According to one writer this is the only definition we have for faith in the New Testament.

The first section says:

faith is the assurance of things hoped for

For Calvin faith is the foundation (prop/ support) and hope is to do with the future.  We cannot see into the future but faith enables us to walk firmly even though we cannot see into the future. 

The second section says:

the conviction of things not seen.

ἔλεγχος elegchos ; from 1651; a proof, test:–

conviction(1).

I like the King James version rendering of ‘evidence’.

Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. From KJV.

Verse 2 is an encouragement to the present believers that they too have the ‘same faith’ as those in the Old Testament. 

Reflection

So, then my friends what is faith? 

The answer my friends is for us to believe and trust with our whole heart and life in the Lord Jesus Christ.  Faith and suffering go hand in hand.  If we live by faith we are going to struggle.   Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Suffered so too we will also face obstacles.  Don’t let culture with lovely, tinted glasses block our understanding of what Apollos means by faith.  Let us see beyond culture, let us see beyond our sinful natures (greed) to the majestic mountain top of service to Christ, love of our neighbours and even love of our enemies.  Faith is a gift of God and let us not take it for granted. As believer we too have the guarantor of our salvation the Holy Spirit. 

Perhaps on Hebrews 11 1 you were given false teaching.  This is not your fault my friends.  Christ really loves you.  He loves you so much that he gave up his life so that you may live into a blissful eternity.  Many of us struggle at varying degrees.  The Lord Jesus is only a prayer away so you can always ask God to give you direction in your life.

In our next blog we are going to look at some of these Old Testament heroes who lived by faith. Just like these Jewish Christians who lived by faith and then the magnificent list of Old Testament heroes, we will learn how to walk the walk and talk the talk of faith and what this actually means in practice!

Calvin’s Commentary Hebrews 11.1

1. Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.

1. Porro fides est rerum sperandarum substantia, demonstratio eorum quae non videntur.

1. Now faith, etc. Whoever made this the beginning of the eleventh chapter, has unwisely disjointed the context; for the object of the Apostle was to prove what he had already said ­that there is need of patience.  200 He had quoted the testimony of Habakkuk, who says that the just lives by faith; he now shows what remained to be proved — that faith can be no more separated from patience than from itself. The order then of what he says is this, — “We shall not reach the goal of salvation except we have patience, for the Prophet declares that the just lives by faith; but faith directs us to things afar off which we do not as yet enjoy; it then necessarily includes patience.” Therefore the minor proposition in the argument is this, Faith is the substance of things hoped for, etc. It is hence also evident, that greatly mistaken are they who think that an exact definition of faith is given here; for the Apostle does not speak here of the whole of what faith is, but selects that part of it which was suitable to his purpose, even that it has patience ever connected with it.  201 Let us now consider the words.

He calls faith the hypostasis, the substance of things hoped for. We indeed know that what we hope for is not what we have as it were in hand, but what is as yet hid from us, or at least the enjoyment of which is delayed to another time. The Apostle now teaches us the same thing with what we find in Ro 8:24; where it is said that what is hoped for is not seen, and hence the inference is drawn, that it is to be waited for in patience. So the Apostle here reminds us, that faith regards not present things, but such as are waited for. Nor is this kind of contradiction without its force and beauty: Faith, he says, is the hypostasis, the prop, or the foundation on which we plant our foot, — the prop of what? Of things absent, which are so far from being really possessed by us, that they are far beyond the reach of our understanding.

The same view is to be taken of the second clause, when he calls faith the evidence or demonstration of things not seen; for demonstration makes things to appear or to be seen; and it is commonly applied to what is subject to our senses.  202

Then these two things, though apparently inconsistent, do yet perfectly harmonize when we speak of faith; for the Spirit of God shows to us hidden things, the knowledge of which cannot reach our senses: Promised to us is eternal life, but it is promised to the dead; we are assured of a happy resurrection, but we are as yet involved in corruption; we are pronounced just, as yet sin dwells in us; we hear that we are happy, but we are as yet in the midst of many miseries; an abundance of all good things is promised to us, but still we often hunger and thirst; God proclaims that he will come quickly, but he seems deaf when we cry to him. What would become of us were we not supported by hope, and did not our minds emerge out of the midst of darkness above the world through the light of God’s word and of his Spirit? Faith, then, is rightly said to be the subsistence or substance of things which are as yet the objects of hope and the evidence of things not seen. Augustine sometimes renders evidence “conviction,” which I do not disapprove, for it faithfully expresses the Apostle’s meaning: but I prefer “demonstration,” as it is more literal.

Teachings of Hebrews on the thorny issue of Apostasy

September 3, 2021

30 08 2021

When we looked at the last section verses 19-25 Apollos was speaking positively to those who believe.  In verses 26-31 Apollos is speaking to those who hold the confession but have decided to wilfully keep on sinning.

As a bonus we are also going to touch on the authorship of Hebrews and some indicators why only Apollos from all of the candidates of the New Testament could have written this magnificent book.

Christ or Judgment

26 For if we go on sinning wilfully after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, 27 but a terrifying expectation of judgment and THE FURY OF A FIRE WHICH WILL CONSUME THE ADVERSARIES. 28 Anyone who has set aside the Law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 29 How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled underfoot the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spirit of grace? 30 For we know Him who said, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY.” And again, “THE LORD WILL JUDGE HIS PEOPLE.” 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.  Hebrews 10:26-39

When we turn to action (ethics)we need to remember that this was a Christian community.  Before we look at this section it is good just to reflect on what Apollos has taught us along the way.  The important theme is faith.  As believers in Christ, we are called to live ‘in Him’.  The writer has already spoken of the two ways when the people of God under Moses walked through the Wilderness and so often, they chose the way of unbelief.  Only Joshua and Caleb out of that whole generation made it into the promised land with their descendants of course.  The special ingredient was faith.  We are warned not to continue turning our backs on Christ wilfully and continue living as though Christ’s work on the cross meant nothing.   Apollos is correct to remind us that we shouldn’t take our Lord’s sacrifice for granted. Be careful my friends.   If you’re not a believer yet, this does not concern you because from the theological stance you haven’t come into a covenant relationship with Christ although the invitation is always open and there is no force.  Christ knocks at the door of your heart, and he invites you to dine with him into eternity.

Verse 26

26 For if we go on sinning wilfully after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins,

Obviously, all Christians sin but this is aimed at the apostates.  Those who completely turn their backs on Christ.  It is also a rejection of the death of Christ on the cross.  Apostates have only themselves to blame.

Verse 27-31

27 but a terrifying expectation of judgment and THE FURY OF A FIRE WHICH WILL CONSUME THE ADVERSARIES. 28 Anyone who has set aside the Law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 29 How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled underfoot the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spirit of grace?  30 For we know Him who said, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY.” And again, “THE LORD WILL JUDGE HIS PEOPLE.” 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

Apollos begins quoting from the great Isaiah.  Then he is reminding his readers of the legal aspects of judgement under the law of Moses.  It only took two or three witnesses to condemn a fellow Israelite to death. Apollos seems to be quoting from Isaiah:

11 O LORD, Your hand is lifted up, yet they do not see it.

They see Your zeal for the people and are put to shame;

Indeed, fire will devour Your enemies. Isaiah 26:11

Apollos gets very graphic about the role the apostates play with the atoning work of Christ. Trampling the sacrifice of Christ is a sin that will never be forgiven as it is a sin against the Holy Spirit. 

Notes

The Holy Spirit is very active in the Book of Hebrews.  In the majority of places in Hebrews, the Holy Spirit is referred to as ‘Holy Spirit’.  In two places however he is referred to as the ‘Eternal Spirit’ (9.14) and the Spirit of Grace (10.29).  Apollos definitely had a strong belief in the work of the Holy Spirit.  In the Acts of the Apostles, we find Apollos with other disciples being taught about the Holy Spirit (Acts 18:24 – 19:10).  In the passage below we see Apollos and other disciples being taught about the Holy Spirit.  As in many churches around the world today there are ecstatic experiences going on linked to the person of the Holy Spirit.  You might come to a different conclusion to me but at least have a read of the passage below:

24 Now a Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus; and he was mighty in the Scriptures. 25 This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he was speaking and teaching accurately the things concerning Jesus, being acquainted only with the baptism of John; 26 and he began to speak out boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more accurately. 27 And when he wanted to go across to Achaia, the brethren encouraged him and wrote to the disciples to welcome him; and when he had arrived, he greatly helped those who had believed through grace, 28 for he powerfully refuted the Jews in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ.

Paul at Ephesus

1 It happened that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus and found some disciples. 2 He said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” And they said to him, “No, we have not even heard whether there is a Holy Spirit.” 3 And he said, “Into what then were you baptized?” And they said, “Into John’s baptism.” 4 Paul said, “John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in Him who was coming after him, that is, in Jesus.” 5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 6 And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking with tongues and prophesying. 7 There were in all about twelve men.

8 And he entered the synagogue and continued speaking out boldly for three months, reasoning and persuading them about the kingdom of God. 9 But when some were becoming hardened and disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the people, he withdrew from them and took away the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus. 10 This took place for two years, so that all who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks. Acts 18:24 – 19:10 NASB

The notes give us some incredible information about Apollos.  In fact, after the problems were sorted out in Corinth, there is a tradition that he returned and became a leader there.   

Verse 30-31

We see Pauline influence on Apollos as well with the quote ‘vengeance is mine’:

35 ‘Vengeance is Mine, and retribution,

In due time their foot will slip;

For the day of their calamity is near,

And the impending things are hastening upon them.’ Deuteronomy 32:35

It is also quoted by Saint Paul:

17 Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect what is right in the sight of all men. 18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men. 19 Never take your own revenge, beloved, but leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY,” says the Lord. 20 “BUT IF YOUR ENEMY IS HUNGRY, FEED HIM, AND IF HE IS THIRSTY, GIVE HIM A DRINK; FOR IN SO DOING YOU WILL HEAP BURNING COALS ON HIS HEAD.” 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. Romans 12:17-21 NASB

God will judge the Apostate, we are called to show love to everyone:

31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God. Hebrews 10:31

Reflection

God created us and he sent his only Son into the world to make it possible for us to find peace with God.  Unfortunately, there are those who pretend to be Christians but actually do it for other ulterior motives.  Apollos shows us that the person who tramples the works of Christ into the ground have sinned against the Holy Spirit… Could this be the unforgivable sin?  Apollos did not mince words here. 

Indicators of Authorship

For me, reading about Apollos and what he learned about the Holy Spirit from other believers including Saint Paul; If Apollos was the author of the book of Hebrews I would expect to see a strong pneumatology withing Hebrews.  There is a strong emphasis on the Holy Spirit in the book of Hebrews.  It can at times seems veiled for examples:

  1. ‘gifts of the Holy Spirit’ Hebrews 2.4
  2. ‘The Holy Spirit says’ Hebrews 3.7
  3. ‘Partakers of the Holy Spirit’ Hebrews 6.4
  4. 4 God also testifying with them, both by signs and wonders and by various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His own will Hebrews 2:4
  5. ‘the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying’ Hebrews 10:15

The Holy Spirit is ‘personal’ in the book of Hebrews.  This is a high theology of God.  A person gives gifts; a person speaks; persons share with others; language and signs belong to personal communication.  There are those who say that Hebrews was influenced by Philo but this is nonsense.  Obviously, Apollos may have used philonic language but Apollos says the opposite.  The Puritans proved that Hebrews is a complete refutation of Philo’s teachings!

https://www.apuritansmind.com/apologetics/the-author-of-hebrews-philo-and-the-doctrine-of-the-logos-by-dr-c-matthew-mcmahon/

Remember that Philo was working from Alexandria the greatest learning centre of the ancient world and he died in the ad 40’s! Certainly, Apollos being a ‘learned man’ would have learned about this branch of Judaism.  What we have learned about Apollos and why he is an excellent candidate for the writer of Hebrews.

  1. The writer to the Hebrews had a strong pneumatology so did Apollos
  2. The writer to the Hebrews was eloquent in Alexandrian Greek so was Apollos.
  3. The book of Hebrews is a refutation of Philo’s teachings, only Apollos from the New Testament could have done this because he was a learned man from ‘Alexandria’.
  4. The opening verses in the book of Hebrews is some of the best Greek, ancient or modern, only a person with the calibre of Apollos could have written it. Paul although educated does not match the standard (sorry but it is true).

These then are some reasons why I am convinced that Apollos wrote it.   I’m sure there are a lot more. 

Next time we will look at verses 32-39.  We move away from the Apostates, and we begin the run up to one of the greatest chapters in the Bible on the topic of faith.  These Christians were suffering persecution, but Apollos will bring the believers out of the valley and to the mountain top of Faith where we can see over the horizon into heaven itself. 

Life in the Spirit; Walking the Christian walk in the Valleys and the Mountain tops.

August 29, 2021

We have seen that Christ was the real high priest from Heaven itself and also Christ was the perfect sacrifice once and for all.  For these reasons we have a new and living way in Christ.  The tabernacle on earth was only ever a copy and shadow of the real one in heaven. As a digression we will first encouragement from Herman Bavinck’s Reformed Ethics:

“Only the Triune God has life in himself; all creaturely life is derived from and dependent upon God. While the drive for self-preservation characterizes all vegetative and sentient life, the spiritual life is characterized by love for God, in Christ, through the Holy Spirit Its fundamental principle is not found within the natural life but first arises through denial, self-crucifixion, renunciation, and loss of our soul. Love, poured into our hearts by the Holy Spirit and fruit of the Spirit, gives stature and form to the spiritual life.” Reformed Ethics; Book 2 and chapter 7; page 239; By Herman Bavinck; edited by John Bolt)

This is a great encouragement from Herman Bavinck.  In this life we are always facing various trials and at the end even death itself.  My friend’s God is at work, and he cares for your soul.  In Christ by faith, we can grasp eternal life through the work of Christ.  In Christ we have fulness of life.   Bavinck in the first opening pages looks at St Pauls writings but here too in Apollos’ writings we find this encouraging theme.

Before continuing to our main theme let us read our main text from Hebrews 10. 19-25:

A New and Living Way

19 Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, 20 by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh, 21 and since we have a great priest over the house of God, 22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. 23 Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for He who promised is faithful; 24 and let us consider how to stimulate one another to love and good deeds, 25 not forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day drawing near. Hebrews 10:19-25

When we read the book of Hebrews, we get great encouragement. Did you know that these Christians were really suffering for their faith?  We know what happened to the Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. It was pulled down and those Jewish slaves were sent to the Corinthian Canal to build it. Obviously, it was a failed venture until 1853.  Some set the book in Rome however we know the book was probably written before AD 70 and my theory is that it was written in Jerusalem.  We know that many priests were becoming Christians in the Jerusalem Temple.  I would venture to say that these Jewish Christians were being abused by the local Jewish and Roman authorities.  Many of these believers that Apollos is referring to were losing land and property and were being put in prison.  This is persecution my friends.  The believers mentioned in the book of Hebrews are a great encouragement to us alive today.  When we suffer for our faith like they did they stayed firm in the faith.  

From what we have read we have seen Jesus as the Lamb of God.  It is Jesus who died on the cross but by faith we have great ‘confidence’.  This is faith language and we do not enter any temple on earth my friends we enter the Holy Place in heaven itself by the blood of Jesus:

19 Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus,

This is the true march of faith.  We are walking and getting closer to the great faith chapter 11.  We are not there yet.  However, we ought to know why we have this great confidence.  It is what Jesus has done for us.

We are not there yet but Apollos furnishes more morsels of spiritual food for our hearts.  ‘By a new and living way’:

20 by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh, 21 and since we have a great priest over the house of God,

 Heaven itself through the work of Christ has broken through the heavens into our space and time.  We have the original Great High Priest over our souls.  The second Person of the Trinity.  The One who took on a body and died so that we might have eternal life.  In these verses we have the proof and evidence my brothers and sisters if only we ‘believe’ and trust our Lord Jesus fully.

Apollos has already covered this ground in this verse already earlier on in the book where he says:

23 Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for He who promised is faithful:

We saw from Psalm 95 that the people of God grumbled against God and Moses.  We don’t have to be that way my friends.  Sometimes we need to go through the hardships no matter what.  There may be a price to pay.  It maybe we will lose friends, be falsely accused for something we didn’t do.  It may be that we are thrown in prison for our faith.  Let us stay faithful to the Lord Jesus even if we are condemned.  Jesus is our Lord, and the Holy Spirit is our Comforter and helper.  Our home is already prepared in heaven for us.

As Bavinck would say Faith is the root and works are the fruit.  Apollos is grounded in reality my friends.  He takes the believers into heaven itself and then he brings them down to the sacrificial work of Christ on the cross.  In light of what God has done, we are called to love our neighbour.  From that perspective these verses are important:

24 and let us consider how to stimulate one another to love and good deeds, 25 not forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day drawing near. Hebrews 10:19-25

With the verses above we are encouraged to live as a family of God.  We are not to forsake assembling (but it is not a command).  Some Christians live away from civilization and they cannot attend for certain reasons.  It may be that the person has physical movements of moving around.  Let us not forget that our God is a God of love, and we ought to reciprocate our lord Jesus’ example.

We also have a firm hope in these verses where it says,” and all the more as you see the day drawing near.” For Christians there is the great expectation of our Lord Jesus coming back for his church.  Here we see a small glimpse of this truth.  We ought to have the same attitude as these believers as we are called to hope for the return of Christ. 

Reflection

Faith and Christian action are always linked.  Apollos (Whom I believe wrote this work of beautiful divine theological reality art) Explained to us what Jesus had done for us through his person and his actions.  Jesus went through many sufferings so in the same way we ought to follow the confession of our faith in Christ.  We are literally a new creation of God inside out as he has written his laws on our hearts.  In Christ we too will enter heaven itself.  It is not a fun thing to go to prison for something you did not do.  Jesus understands this as he was a prisoner too even as the chief priests and soldiers came to arrest him while it was still dark.  The work on the cross has been completed after Jesus cried out on the cross “It is finished”. 

Next time Jesus comes, He will not come as a servant but as the King of all kings. The writer to the Hebrews reminds us of this by saying “…all the more as you see the day drawing near. Hebrews 10. 25”

The day of Christ’s second coming draws near.  Let us take stock and fall on our knees and pray how we can be more like Christ.  There is no whip my friend, only love. 

You can also follow my other blog as Herman Bavinck the master theologian gives us the vocabulary for Life in the Spirit: https://hasan-godtalk.blogspot.com/

God is Going to write His Laws on the tablet of our hearts through the work of Our Lord Jesus Christ Hebrews 10. 11-18

August 21, 2021

19 08 2021

Let us begin by reading Hebrews 10. 11-18:

11 Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins; 12 but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, SAT DOWN AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD, 13 waiting from that time onward UNTIL HIS ENEMIES BE MADE A FOOTSTOOL FOR HIS FEET. 14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,

16 “THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THEM

AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:

I WILL PUT MY LAWS UPON THEIR HEART,

AND ON THEIR MIND I WILL WRITE THEM,”

He then says,

17 “AND THEIR SINS AND THEIR LAWLESS DEEDS

I WILL REMEMBER NO MORE.”

18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin. Hebrews 10:11-18 NASB (Olive Tree Bible Software)

Introduction

We need to remember the context of Hebrews.  When talking about the priesthood and sacrifice it is in context of the Tabernacle and the Old Testament.  John Calvin starts like this too.  Later on, he talks about the Papacy and how the Mass breaks the rule of ‘once for all’ sacrifice of Christ.  This text has got nothing to do with the Papists.  It has everything to do with what our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ has done for us.  I’m not interested in polemics, but I am interested in what God has to say to us today in the 21st century. 

Verses 11-14

Looking at verses 11 -14 again:

“11 Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins; 12 but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, SAT DOWN AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD, 13 waiting from that time onward UNTIL HIS ENEMIES BE MADE A FOOTSTOOL FOR HIS FEET. 14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified.”

Verses 11-12

These sacrifices for the people of God were done on a daily basis by the ministering priests.  The main point here is that these offerings could never take away sins.  This is contrasted with what Jesus has done for us.  His ‘sacrifice’ happened once!  After the sacrifice of Jesus, the act was completed for ever.

Verse 13

The beginning of Psalm 110 verse 1 starts with the Divine Trinitarian speech; ‘The Lord says to my Lord’ is omitted here.  Apollos already covered this ground earlier in the book of Hebrews.  Sitting at the right hand of God the Father is a privileged position.  Only the Son can sit here because it is his rightful place.  All the enemies of Christ will be made subject to Christ.

Verse 14

“14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified.” NASB

14 ‘Perfected’ used about Christ is to be seen in a negative light as far as the Old Testament law is concerned. The work of Christ brings an end in history for any need of sacrifice after Christ.  The job has been done!  Calvin would translate this verse a little differently using dynamic equivalence.  In verse fourteen where it says ‘perfected’,(perfect, indicative active), he prefers ‘consecrated’ because in the same verse ‘sanctified’ is used.  When something is sanctified, it is no longer for common use but only for God’s use. 

Verse 15

“15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying, NASB.”

 The third Person of the Trinity is very important to Apollos and actually for many parts of the New Testament.  The Holy Spirit reveals God’s own heart to us, and we need to be more attentive to the prophetic voice of the Holy Spirit who as well as being our Comforter is also our teacher.

Verses 16-18

15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,

16 “THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THEM

AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:

I WILL PUT MY LAWS UPON THEIR HEART,

AND ON THEIR MIND I WILL WRITE THEM,”

He then says,

17 “AND THEIR SINS AND THEIR LAWLESS DEEDS

I WILL REMEMBER NO MORE.”

18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin. Hebrews 10:11-18 NASB (Olive Tree Bible Software)

Once the Writer has proven his case, he is upbeat by quoting Jer. 31. 33-34.  At this point he is moving away from looking at the works of Christ and looking at the effects of Christ’s work. Namely the benefits that the Jewish Christians have coming from the work of Christ.  Hence the benefits for all Christians for all time.

We often here these verse quoted in Church or by believers for their encouragement they give.  Actually, when I think about Jesus’ teachings these are not mediocre prophetic words.  Firstly, it is the Holy Spirit Who spoke these words to us. This means that these words should be taken very seriously indeed. 

A note on The Holy Spirit the third person of the Trinity.

In chapter one we saw the relationship of the Father and the Son, and it is true that the main thrust of the letter is about the Son. The writer however at times touches on the person and work of the Holy Spirit as witness to the Son.

There are those that would only understand the Holy Spirit in impersonal terms. We need to be careful of not understanding the Holy

Spirit as only a power, although we can see the attribute of power working through Him.  You can also see the Holy Spirit speaking in chapters 2,4 / 3,7 / 6,4 / 9,8 / 9,14 /10,15 /10,29    As well as these verses closer scrutiny of the prophecies may show that there are also other verses in which the Holy Spirit is speaking as ‘He’.       

Chapter 4,3 Just as He has said.  8,8 is another case in point He says… in light of 9,8. 

2,4 In this verse we hear about ‘gifts of the Holy Spirit according to his own will’

3,7 Here the Holy Spirit is giving a prophetic speech.

6,4 In verses 4 and 5 we see the disciples spoken of as partakers of the Holy Spirit (third person of the Trinity) and have tasted the word of God (reference to the Father The second person of the trinity).

9,8 The Holy Spirit is giving ‘signs’ in the old covenant.

9,14 This verse refers to all three persons of the Trinity) Here the work of Christ is met through the agency of the Holy Spirit as a gift to the Father.

10,15 Here the Holy Spirit is a witness.

10,29 Here it says that the Holy Spirit can be insulted. i.e., We can only speak of a person being insulted not a power.

The Holy Spirit in relation to the Father and the Son. I would argue that the Writer of Hebrews has an implicit theology of the Holy Trinity, and it becomes explicit in 9,14

From the above argument I have proven that the Holy Spirit needs to be understood in personal terms, just as he is referred in other parts of scripture, such as the speech of Jesus in John 14,16-31. In reality however when Looking at John 14 you can see the workings of the complete Trinity if you also take into account verses 7-15.

Reflection

About our salvific situation before a Holy God

I want to begin at verses 16-17. God says that he will give us a new heart. This is very serious indeed.  The standards that God has for us is higher than that of the Pharisees and Sadducees.  These people my friends kept the law perfectly, but I have to explain that the standard Jesus sets is even higher than theirs.  If they kept the law perfectly you might ask, then how can I stand of any chance of getting into heaven? 

That is the main point; in your own strength it is impossible to get to heaven. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus gave us the key when he said, ‘Blessed are the poor in spirit’.  I know that I am going on a tangent but before returning to Hebrews we need to think about our Lords sayings in Matthew 5,6, and 7 in his Sermon on the Mount.  If you try to fulfil the teachings of the Sermon on the Mount my friends, you will fall flat on your face.  For me these have been written to show how helpless we are before a Holy God.  One needs to come to a place in your heart and confess that you are destitute and in complete need of God’s Help.  ‘Poor in Spirit’ is no accidental formula.  It is intended to disarm us.  The Pharisees kept the law perfectly (they thought), but they failed to comply with what ‘has not been written’ as Bavinck would explain to us.  Later on, in the book of Acts many priests did in fact follow the way of Christ.  

Returning to verses 17-18 then, the Holy Spirit needs to change our heart.  Unless we come to a place of repentance (‘poor in spirit’) we would not be able to have a new heart.  This is God’s process.

The work Jesus has done for us.

We have now seen that Jesus is our perfect high Priest and our king sitting at the right hand of God the Father in heaven.  He is also the one who died for us so that we can have eternal life.   As Paul says, “if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved; 10 for with the heart a person believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation.” Romans 10.9-10 NASB

Indeed this is our confession that Jesus has been raised from the dead and because of this we will one day be also raised from the dead.

Our Lord Jesus Christ, the only one to have kept God’s Will perfectly

August 14, 2021

14 08 2021

Apollos whom I believe wrote this book quotes from the Old Testament:

King David (Hebrews 10;5-7 from Psalm 40; 6 onwards) and Jeremiah the Prophet (Hebrews 10; 16-17 from Jeremiah 31;33).

King David who was one of the ancestors of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ and Jeremiah the Prophet were two characters that suffered a lot for their faith through the trials that they went through.  Both men had a close walk with God.  Sometimes we need to go through sufferings to reach our final destination.   All the kings of Israel were anointed with oil hence Messiah means the ‘anointed one’.   Jesus’ title of Christ, messiah shows his kingship lineage.  Jesus is the only king that brought the sacrificial system and kingship into one union in his person.   We have already touched on this in earlier blogs.  In verses 5 to 7 God is speaking through king David and in verses 16 to 18 God is speaking through the voice of Jeremiah.   Let us now read from Hebrews 10; 5-18

5 Therefore, when He comes into the world, He says,

“SACRIFICE AND OFFERING YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED,

BUT A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED FOR ME;

6 IN WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE TAKEN NO PLEASURE.

7 “THEN I SAID, ‘BEHOLD, I HAVE COME

(IN THE SCROLL OF THE BOOK IT IS WRITTEN OF ME)

TO DO YOUR WILL, O GOD.’”

8 After saying above, “SACRIFICES AND OFFERINGS AND WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED, NOR HAVE YOU TAKEN PLEASURE in them” (which are offered according to the Law), 9 then He said, “BEHOLD, I HAVE COME TO DO YOUR WILL.” He takes away the first in order to establish the second. 10 By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

11 Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins; 12 but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, SAT DOWN AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD, 13 waiting from that time onward UNTIL HIS ENEMIES BE MADE A FOOTSTOOL FOR HIS FEET. 14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,

16 “THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THEM

AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:

I WILL PUT MY LAWS UPON THEIR HEART,

AND ON THEIR MIND I WILL WRITE THEM,”

He then says,

17 “AND THEIR SINS AND THEIR LAWLESS DEEDS

I WILL REMEMBER NO MORE.”

18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin. Hebrews 10:5-18

Verses 5-11 The Writer then quotes a Psalm that relates to the messiah ps40-6-7.  We can see in the Hebraic parallelism Christ contrasted with the sacrificial system.  However, the key that the Writer uses in this verse is found as the son doing the will of God in verse 9.  Not anyone doing the will of God but namely the Son of God the Christ. In verse 10 the Writer finishes off by stating that Christ’s sacrifice is sufficient once and for all.   Let us quote verses 9 and 10 again:

“9 then He said, “BEHOLD, I HAVE COME TO DO YOUR WILL.” He takes away the first in order to establish the second. 10 By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.” NASB

There is only one man in the whole of the human race who has not sinned.  There is only one man in the whole of the human race who kept God’s will perfectly.  This Man being fully divine and full human at the same time is the one who has never sinned and kept God’s council perfectly.   The little phrase ‘takes away’ literally means makes an end, kills off (g0337. ἀναιρέω anaireō ; from 303 and 138; to take up, take away, make an end:– Taken from Olive tree software).  The sacrificial Judaic system finds its fulfilment in Christ therefore the sacrificial Old Testament system has become redundant.  Jesus was the main sacrifice and in him we are sanctified.  It is through Jesus offering himself and keeping God’s will perfectly. We see this in the garden of Gethsemane:

“39 And He came out and went, as was His habit, to the Mount of Olives; and the disciples also followed Him. 40 Now when He arrived at the place, He said to them, “Pray that you do not come into temptation.” 41 And He withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and He knelt down and began to pray, 42 saying, “Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done.” 43 [[n]Now an angel from heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him. 44 And being in agony, He was praying very fervently; and His sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground]. 45 When He rose from prayer, He came to the disciples and found them sleeping from sorrow, 46 and He said to them, “Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you do not come into temptation.”  “(Fromhttps://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke%2022&version=NASB)

In this passage we see the prayer that shows how far Jesus would go in order to do God’s will.

Reflection

We cannot fulfil God’s will in our own strength.  It is what Jesus has done for us that allows us to come into the presence of God by faith.  There have been serious debates between Roman Catholic and Protestant teachings based on the above text.  As a biblical exegete I’m only interested in making the text clearer for us to understand.  Each person needs to make up their own mind on how to interpret the text in their church situations. All I know is that Jesus died for me once so that it is possible to have eternal life by faith.   As Christians we ought to live in such a way that we love one another and through this, the world can see a sign of the divine in our lives and be convinced that they need to repent and accept Jesus Christ as their personal saviour.  Jesus is the fulfilment of the law.  The sacrificial system, the Tabernacle, the priesthood all pointed to the work and person of Jesus Christ, and he resides in the true Tabernacle, not a copy.  Everything on earth are mere copies of the real thing.  That does not mean that they were not important; they were important because even as a shadow they pointed to the work and person of Christ.  It was a devastating thing when the Temple was destroyed in AD 70 but it is interesting that in historical retrospect that three great religions have a serious claim to Jerusalem.  Jerusalem has always been a Holy Place. 

Jerusalem was the old Salem in which king Melchizedek lived.  Since the time of Abraham though Salem became corrupted and at the time of Joshua the ‘Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem’ was planning to attack Joshua (Joshua 10:1).  He has the same name form as Melchizedek king of Salem.  There are other links in the Psalms for example that link Zion and Salem to Jerusalem for example:

“His tabernacle is in Salem;

His dwelling place also is in Zion. Psalms 76:2”

And then how about this verse:

31 For out of Jerusalem will go forth a remnant, and out of Mount Zion survivors. The zeal of the LORD will perform this. 2 Kings 19:31

Dr Katrina Larking at KCL in the Hebrew lectures many years agon once made the point that all the other nations in Palestine such as Moab, Edom and so on did not survive.  The only nation to have survived was Israel.  Perhaps we are seeing God’s plan being worked out somehow. 

Notes

Some Christian theologians in the past have used this verse as a polemic on the Roman Catholic Church to combat the doctrine of transubstantiation. This is an erroneous way to use the text.  The verse is in light of the sacrificial system of the Old Testament not in light of any disagreement between the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestants. To be more precise, if you want to follow the argument about transubstantiation that Roman Catholic theologians use, you need to understand Aquinas’ borrowing of Aristotelian metaphysics. Be careful not to fall into the trap of reading something into the text that is not there (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transubstantiation).   We are interested in exegesis (https://www.britannica.com/topic/exegesis) reading out the meaning that is there in the text, taking into consideration the original readers.

Hebrews chapter 10 verses 1-4; the importance of the law of God

August 6, 2021

Chapter 10 continues with the sacrifice of Christ.  Before we look at the text in more detail Ellingworth gives us an outline up to verse 18.

Note that Ellingworth says of this passage that, ‘The entire passage is a summary of the central teachings of the epistle Page (488).  The passage has been broken down as follows by various scholars:

“v1-4     The importance of the law.

V5-10    The willingness of Christ.

V11-14 Two kinds of priest.

V15-18 The confirmation of scripture. “(The Epistle to the Hebrews; A commentary on the Greek text; page 488 of Ellingworth)

Let us now begin by reading up to verse 18:

One Sacrifice of Christ Is Sufficient

1 For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near. 2 Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins? 3 But in those sacrifices, there is a reminder of sins year by year. 4 For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. 5 Therefore, when He comes into the world, He says,

“SACRIFICE AND OFFERING YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED,

BUT A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED FOR ME;

6 IN WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE TAKEN NO PLEASURE.

7 “THEN I SAID, ‘BEHOLD, I HAVE COME

(IN THE SCROLL OF THE BOOK IT IS WRITTEN OF ME)

TO DO YOUR WILL, O GOD.’”

8 After saying above, “SACRIFICES AND OFFERINGS AND WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED, NOR HAVE YOU TAKEN PLEASURE in them” (which are offered according to the Law), 9 then He said, “BEHOLD, I HAVE COME TO DO YOUR WILL.” He takes away the first in order to establish the second. 10 By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

11 Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins; 12 but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, SAT DOWN AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD, 13 waiting from that time onward UNTIL HIS ENEMIES BE MADE A FOOTSTOOL FOR HIS FEET. 14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,

16 “THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THEM

AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:

I WILL PUT MY LAWS UPON THEIR HEART,

AND ON THEIR MIND I WILL WRITE THEM,”

He then says,

17 “AND THEIR SINS AND THEIR LAWLESS DEEDS

I WILL REMEMBER NO MORE.”

18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin. Hebrews 10:1-18

Verse 1: 1 For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near.

When one read this verse, it is easy to miss a very important point and it cannot be seen in the English translation.  The two key words are shadow and ‘form of things.’  Basically ‘shadow’ and ‘image’.   Apollos uses shadow in two places.  This verse and chapter 8:5:

5 who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, just as Moses was warned by God when he was about to erect the tabernacle; for, “SEE,” He says, “THAT YOU MAKE all things ACCORDING TO THE PATTERN WHICH WAS SHOWN YOU ON THE MOUNTAIN.” Hebrews 8:5

The question that arises is what is the relationship between the shadow and the image?  John Calvin explains the difference here by saying that the painting has two parts.  The first part is the pencil, and the second part is when the paint is added to make the picture even more beautiful.  The pencil mark is still there and is still important although it is no longer visible.  (Calvin’s New Testament Commentaries; Hebrews 1 & 2 peter: Eerdmans; page 132).  There is a relationship between the sacrifice of Christ and the yearly sacrifices.  Only the work of Christ can perfect the believer and take away sins.  The Mosaic sacrifices were only a shadow, but they were still important in that they pointed beyond themselves to the true ‘form of things’.  Verse 2 continues to explain what verse 1 just said.   Verse 3 spells it out:

“3 But in those sacrifices, there is a reminder of sins year by year.” NASB

This is quite a hard pill to swallow; ‘a reminder of sins.  A reminder means that a person continually needs to go through the same sacrificial process again and again.

Verses 2-4

“2 Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins? 3 But in those sacrifices, there is a reminder of sins year by year. 4 For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.” NASB

In these verses the original worshippers under the Old Covenant still had guilty consciences even after the ritual of sacrifice.  He concludes that the blood of animals has limitations as far as conscience is concerned. 

Reflection

Over the centuries there have been people who have wanted to throw the Old Testament away such as Marcion. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcionism) This is a categorical mistake because Christ came not to abandon but to fulfil the law and the Prophets.  The Old Testament will always be important. A shadow still has an object that belongs to it.  In the light of what we have said we are truly blessed that Christ died for us so that we too in Christ can enter heaven itself too. 

Concerning the idea of the conscience  in one of our verses.  Christians are not supposed to run away from the Law.  IN Christ it has been fulfilled.  I now quote some work from my other blog on Bavincks Reformed Ethics:

“Herman Bavinck will not agree with any of this, and he shows us through Holy Scripture how we ought to perceive the moral natural law and indeed God has to be the foundation.  It is God who has spoken and as he says the Church is called to be different to the nations. Let us look at Bavincks Scripture contents.

“(Exod. 20:2). The moral law is acknowledged throughout the whole Bible as God’s law, even by Jesus himself, who explicitly speaks of biblical commandments as God’s commands and words (Matt. 15:4). Therefore, the law cannot be undone, only fulfilled (Matt. 5:17; cf. Rom. 7:23, 27; 8:2).41‘” (page 221):

2 “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. Exodus 20:2

4 For God said, ‘HONOR YOUR FATHER AND MOTHER,’ and, ‘HE WHO SPEAKS EVIL OF FATHER OR MOTHER IS TO BE PUT TO DEATH.’ Matthew 15:4

17 “Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfil. Matthew 5:17

23 but I see a different law in the members of my body, waging war against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner of the law of sin which is in my members. 24 Wretched man that I am! Who will set me free from the body of this death? 25 Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, on the one hand I myself with my mind am serving the law of God, but on the other, with my flesh the law of sin. Romans 7:23-25

2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death. Romans 8:2 (All these verses have been drawn from Olive Tree Bible software)

Bavinck puts this whole discussion in context:

“When modern thinkers posit an evolutionary origin for biblical law and deny its divine source, they need to be Challenged, as Harless has done: “The law of God in Israel is not the product of a development-process in the people of Israel in which they had gradually become conscious to themselves of what is right and good in the relation, whether of man to man, or man to God. On the contrary, God testifies His will in gradual revelation, in opposition to the spirit predominating amongst the people.” (Page 221)

For Christians the above statement from Bavinck is very important.  God is in control and man thinks he is in control.  Bavinck is not saying that reason is completely bad.  However, as Barth and Bavinck would say faith seeking understanding.  This is how we ought to live.  The man of faith puts his reasons at the feet of Jesus and then he is able to understand the greater picture and not someone looking for something in the pitch black of a storm.

Bavinck finishes the ‘Author section’ by saying:

 “All the relationships between people and God and among his subjects are regulated.43 The source of knowledge of the moral law, therefore, cannot be only our conscience and reason—although they are very valuable—but Holy Scripture in its entirety. This means not only the Pentateuch but also the prophets and the New Testament. The Decalogue is only the summa of the law; the Old and New Testaments are the explanation and commentary.” (From page 222)

Reflection

God created the law, conscience and the world.  Scripture explains to us the facts and as faithful believers we live by these truths.  Those who try to abstract God from the Good (ethics) have to find another base (foundation) and it is generally some form of evolutionary idea that sees things getting better.  We have seen pure reason run into all sorts of problems.  Theology must always use the appropriate tools to come to appropriate conclusions.  We are also dealing with the facts in a scientific way just as much as any scientist this is why Theology is known as the Queen of the sciences.  I don’t believe in using philosophy as a grammar of theology because then the grammar takes over.  It was a good thing that John Calvin dumped Aristotle out of his Institutes.  Let us put Christ first in our live and live by faith.  Ultimately this is the true seat of happiness in the presence of God by the Holy Spirit.”  From https://hasan-godtalk.blogspot.com/