Archive for May, 2021

Jesus is greater than Moses. Hebrews chapter 3 verses 1 -6

May 29, 2021

I wrote a basic commentary a few years ago and my basic tools at the time were Philip Hughes commentary and Donald Guthries commentary from the Tyndale series.   I usually did this at the Weekends prayerfully.  Since then, I have been in charge of religious studies, Humanities and lower Maths.  I left the teaching world and did a basic carpentry degree at a college.  It feels good to offer wholesome biblical teaching to anyone who wants it.  Whatever you background, religious or non-religious I feel there is something for you.  What does the book of Hebrews mean to me?   At university King’s College London, I studied 1 Corinthians; 1 Peter; Galatians; Johns Gospel (unofficially).   I wanted to tread some new ground in the New Testament.  The Book of Hebrews was so different.  This book is a very early book, and it was written before the destruction of the Temple in AD 70.  A history teacher at a school I taught at said that historians use it for that time period as a primary text.  Although the book of Hebrews entered the cannon of Scripture under the name of Paul, the evidence I feel points to Apollos.  This book is a fantastic book to read but we need to do the spadework to really understand it.    As I share my early writings, I am at the same time revising some of my earlier work.   I will keep referring to the writer as Apollos because for two reasons.  I think there is enough evidence to make Apollos a strong contender from internal evidence in the New Testament.  Paul certainly did not write it; an example of this is how the book of Hebrews quotes scriptures ‘never in the style of St Paul’.   I hope in the future there are new discoveries on papyri archaeology that might shed more light on this.

Jesus is greater than Moses.

We have seen that Jesus is seen as the Son of God.  The writer has proven through scripture that Jesus is greater than the angels.  Jesus came from heaven and returned to heaven and will come back again one day to take his Church (bride).  Moses a very important person along with Elijah one night came to visit Jesus and some of the Apostles saw this.  I will quote this story because I think it sheds light on how Chrsitians from the 1st and second centuries viewed Moses and Elijah

“The Transfiguration

17 Six days later, Jesus *took with Him Peter and [a]James, and his brother John, and *led them up on a high mountain by themselves. 2 And He was transfigured before them; and His face shone like the sun, and His garments became as white as light. 3 And behold, Moses and Elijah appeared to them, talking with Him. 4 Peter responded and said to Jesus, “Lord, it is good that we are here. If You want, I will make three [b]tabernacles here: one for You, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” 5 While he was still speaking, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold, a voice from the cloud said, “This is My beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to Him!” 6 When the disciples heard this, they fell [c]face down to the ground and were terrified. 7 And Jesus came to them and touched them and said, “Get up, and do not be afraid.” 8 And raising their eyes, they saw no one except Jesus Himself alone.” (From Bible gateway https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew%2017:1-8&version=NASB  )

As you can see: Here Jesus is referred to as the Son of God.  Note Moses and Elijah were witnesses but Jesus was seen in his divine glory.  Some of the Apostles witnessed this event.  When we think about this chapter, certainly Apollos would have known about this story.  In fact, I feel that Apollos is going to explain the real significance of Jesus glory and in relation to Moses.  Something that at the time, the Apostles themselves, didn’t wholly grasp (understand) themselves.

Jesus Our High Priest

1 Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider Jesus, the Apostle and High Priest of our confession; 2 He was faithful to Him who appointed Him, as Moses also was in all His house. 3 For He has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, by just so much as the builder of the house has more honor than the house. 4 For every house is built by someone, but the builder of all things is God. 5 Now Moses was faithful in all His house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken later; 6 but Christ was faithful as a Son over His house—whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the boast of our hope firm until the end. Hebrews 3:1-6

life and teachings of Christ, Chapter 3.

This chapter begins with a, therefore. This is important in light of everything that the writer has already said about Jesus in relation to the Father.  Jesus is referred to as ‘the Apostle’. The word literally means ‘sent forth’.  In other words, Jesus was sent directly from God.  God did not give Jesus a message ‘indirectly’ through an angel or other agency.  This point will become clearer as we work through the Moses material and Jesus’ position as greater than the angels.  So, then Jesus is not a high priest but he is The High Priest. Donald Guthrie made an important point here as well.  This is the only reference to Jesus as Apostle.   From that point of view Jesus was sent from the Father and then he appointed the twelve inferior weak apostles.  Although weak as ambassadors of Christ, the world would never be the same again.

Verse 1b ‘of our confession:  Obviously the Pharisees, Saducees, Scribes who did not accept Jesus as the Christ would disagree with the Apollos’ point of view.  Yet Apollos is using the first-person plural pronoun ‘our’… He is writing as one having the same point of view as the audience.  Yet in a sense the writer is not writing outside of the fold of Judaism otherwise his interpretation of Moses in relation to Jesus would not make sense.

In verses 2-6 we see a qualitative difference between Christ and Moses. Moses was a servant over the house of God, but Jesus is the Son of God as found in Psalm 2. 7.  A servant does not own a house and in that sense, he is always a guest… They were both faithful to God in their own way etc.  

Digging into the background of what Messiah really is: Let us just stop right here and consider what sonship is.  If we start at chapter 1 and work our way through, we will see how great Jesus our saviour is. The Messianic Psalm 2 that has already been quoted chapter 1 verse 5 straight from Psalm 2.  

The Reign of the LORD’S Anointed.

“1 Why are the nations in an uproar

And the peoples devising a vain thing?

2 The kings of the earth take their stand

And the rulers take counsel together

Against the LORD and against His Anointed, saying,

3 “Let us tear their fetters apart

And cast away their cords from us!”

4 He who sits in the heavens laughs,

The Lord scoffs at them.

5 Then He will speak to them in His anger

And terrify them in His fury, saying,

6 “But as for Me, I have installed My King

Upon Zion, My holy mountain.”

7 “I will surely tell of the decree of the LORD:

He said to Me, ‘You are My Son,

Today I have begotten You.

8 ‘Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Your inheritance,

And the very ends of the earth as Your possession.

9 ‘You shall break them with a rod of iron,

You shall shatter them like earthenware.’”

10 Now therefore, O kings, show discernment;

Take warning, O judges of the earth.

11 Worship the LORD with reverence

And rejoice with trembling.

12 Do homage to the Son, that He not become angry, and you perish in the way,

For His wrath may soon be kindled.

How blessed are all who take refuge in Him!” Psalms 2 NASB

Sonship and Kingship are very powerful motifs from the Old Testament.  All Apollos is doing is showing to his readers what it means to be the Messiah.   Messiah, God’s anointed is above the mundane nations doing their things.  The Messiah is God’s chosen King. Jesus is the second person of the Trinity, and the full force of the Trinity is with him. In his divinity he is the second person of the Trinity. 

Obviously for Apollos to write in this strong way and having to prove that Jesus is above Moses possibly means that some of the readers may have been close to idolatry (The worship of Moses, putting him on a pedestal figuratively speaking).  I am here trying to mirror read the text.

Verse 3

There are contrasts going on in verse 3: For He has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, by just so much as the builder of the house has more honor than the house. NASB

In the Greek then in this sentence the ‘He’ referring to Jesus is in the nominative and Moses is in the accusative.   Jesus is given the glory and Moses is a special servant, but he is still only a servant.  As Christians we ought to respect Moses and his teachings as he was a prophet and, in that sense, pointed us to Christ.  This is obvious from the Transfiguration that we looked at earlier.

So, the writer up to verse 4 has said that Jesus is greater than Moses…  In this verse the writer says God is the builder of everything in the universe.

In verse 5 the writer makes the important point that Moses was looking forward to the promise.

If I was going to paraphrase verse 6 I would say that whilst Moses looked forward to the promise ‘Jesus is the promise’ that Moses was looking forward to.  What a blessing for us to see Moses at the transfiguration with our Lord. 

In light of verse 6b where a great promise was given to Moses, ‘we’ as the readers are also asked to keep faith to the end of time.  The writer having spoken about Moses in relation to Christ and shown from the scriptures that Moses spoke about the Christ…  He then turns to an event from the life of Moses and is about to challenge the readers faith so that they will stop doubting.

Reflection

Apollos has proven that Jesus is greater than Moses.  As Christians we did not have a problem with this but before AD 70 believers did not have computers that they could go to check the facts.  Let us not be too judgmental of these early believers.  As Christians let us show respect to Moses and all the early Holy Ones that God spoke through.  We should also be thankful to the Jewish community who preserved these Scriptures as they are our Scriptures too.  I speak in this way because every human being has been created in the image of God.  We are all special in God’s sight.  Let us also love our Palestinian friends.  I hope and pray that in the future peace will come to everyone in the middle east.  Guns will be made into farming implements and the golden rule will reign amongst all human beings of whatever nationality or religion.

Our Lord and High Priest Jesus Christ who cares for his flock. Hebrews 2. 14-18

May 21, 2021

Hebrews chapter 2 verses 14-18.

I will not be using a digital voice this week as the blog is longer than normal.

Let us read.

14 Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives. 16 For assuredly He does not give help to angels, but He gives help to the descendant of Abraham. 17 Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For since He Himself was tempted in that which He has suffered, He is able to come to the aid of those who are tempted. Hebrews 2:14-18 NASB

These verses are very interesting in that they discuss humanity in the grand scheme of God’s will.  Jesus became a man and shared in the same life as we are in.  Even as everyone will one day face death, Jesus also had to face and experience death.

Verse 14

This verse has two sections part a refers to us and Christ, and part b to the power of death. We will look at both parts in sequence.

Therefore since = Ἐπεὶ οὖν Hebrews 2:14  This takes us to the previous thought that comes straight from Isaiah 8 18. “BEHOLD, I AND THE CHILDREN WHOM GOD HAS GIVEN ME.” Hebrews 2:13 NASB This is a very important and this chapter has a grain of Messianic kingship truth running straight through.  How terrible and great at the same time are these verses and Apollos understood this.   The first part of Isaiah 8 talks about the Northern Kingdom being taken captive and as we know this terrible event really did happen.  This judgement will also spill into Judah and only a remnant will be saved.  These events happened my friends.   Everything seems to be lost and if it wasn’t for the Lord there would be no hope. 

I want to look now at background information to Isaiah 8 verses 16 to 18”  16 Bind up the testimony, seal the [q]Law among my disciples. 17 And I will wait for the Lord who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob; I will wait eagerly for Him. 18 Behold, I and the children whom the Lord has given me are for signs and wonders in Israel from the Lord of armies, who dwells on Mount Zion.”  

The context is clear the children in verse 18 refer to the saved remnant.  The people Apollos was talking to were from their point of view the saved remnant.  Now we understand the background to verse 13 b we can return to verse 14.   The since and the children in verse 13 and 14 are those who are the remnant and being saved.  This is the context.  The children mentioned in verse 14 makes us children of the promise.  The children and the Lord go hand in hand, “behold I and the children whom God has given to me.” The I refers to the Lord Jesus Christ and we are his children, the church, the community of believers.  Jesus the Lord shared our humanity, he became a man, that is what flesh and blood means.  The lord Jesus went further than that and tasted the suffering of death.   We need to be careful to read the second part of verse 14 carefully.  God is always in control.  Satan is only a creature, a created being.   As Philip Edgecumbe Hughes says.  Satan having power of death can only be understood secondarily.  On page 113c of his Hebrews commentary he writes;

“ in considering these questions it should be recognized that the power of death is held by the devil only In a secondary and not in an ultimate sense. Death is indeed the dark reality of his tyranny. But God is still supreme in his sovereignty: unfailingly, it is for him and by him that all things exist, as we have already been reminded (v. 10)- Death Is not a sphere that has broken loose from God 3 command. On the contrary, Scripture, as Aquinas observes, clearly teaches that death, like all else, is under God’s control (cf. Gen. 2:17; Dt. 32:39; 1 KL 216; Mt. 10:28; Lk. 12:5; 1 Cor. 15:25f.; Rev. 1:18); and the clinching proof of this is the conquest of death and Satan by the incarnate Son. Besides, the devil is a creature—and, significantly within the present context, an angelic creature—finite and futile in his rebellion, and subject to judgment and destruction. There is no question or possibility of an insoluble dilemma involving a cosmic dualism of God and Satan, as though they were eternally opposed to each other as two equal and ultimate realities. The power of death wielded by the devil is not an absolute power, indeed, death is the sentence of God pronounced against man who sinfully has transferred his allegiance from his Creator to the creature (Gen. 3:1ff.; Ezek. 18:4; Rom. 3:23) and who in doing so has turned His back on God’s realm of life in favour of Satan’s realm of death. It is in this sense that the devil is said to hold the power of death. But the power which he presently wields is also the power by which he is destroyed (1 In: 318] Rev. 20:10). Death is-the awful reality of divine judgment, not satanic Victory. Creation and destruction—and salvation from destruction—belong properly and absolutely to God alone. When we read that it was through death that the devil was overcome, we should carefully consider whose death it was that achieved this triumph and what kind of death it was that he died; otherwise, we shall never have a due appreciation of the logic and the necessity of that death by which we were redeemed. The spectacle of the cross is not that of any man enduring the pains of death, but of the incarnate Son of God in his pure innocence suffering a death which is not his due. It is the death, moreover, of one who, though guiltless, has been tried by and legal process condemned to die the death of a common criminal and in the place of the common criminal (Barabbas), so that it is plain to all that in this death the Innocent One is suffering for the guilty, the Holy One for the unholy. Any other kind of death, peaceful or violent, would have obscured this central truth of the cross. Death, therefore, and more specifically the death of Christ and death of this the overthrow of him who had persuaded death. “This of all others seemed the most kind, was necessary for mankind to abandon life for t unlikely way and means,” ”

From Philip Edgecumbe Hughes commentary, Eerdmans, page 113

So when reading this God holds all the power.  It is through the work of Christ, his work on the cross that defeated death.  The real number one enemy for mankind is death.  We do not need to read holy books to understand this.  All the graveyards which house our loved one’s remind us of this.  But we have an eternal hope.  Without the Lord Jesus Christ this would not have been possible.

Satan has been defeated (the adversary, see Job).  It was Jesus who overcame death…  He was the first to overcome death and according to Apollos in verse 15 we don’t need to face death anymore.  In verse 16 the writer emphasises that we are the inheritors of salvation not the angels.  Obviously, he is writing to an audience who were educated into the teachings of the OT. 

The name of Abraham would resonate with the promise (Genesis 22). However, let us remember that according to the Jewish scriptures the blessing to Abraham in the end was meant for everyone.  In Genesis Abraham is referred to as the ‘father of many nations’ and obviously this includes the gentile nations.  In this context however it is better to remember the Jewish context of the letter…  It is only in the context of Jesus as High Priest that gives sense to the text that we are reading. 

In verse 17 we come to the theological debates that surround ‘expiate’ and ‘propitiate’.  The high priests job was to mediate between God and the Jewish community at different levels.  It is in light of this that our two words need to be understood.  In Greek usage of the time propitiate meant to ‘appease the gods’ thus some commentators prefer expiate or ‘atone for’.  The most important point however is that both meanings take us towards ‘peace with God’. So as high priest Jesus made peace with God for the people of God in line with OT theologies.

However, in verse 18 we see the focus being on Jesus as a human being who was prone to suffering as we are yet without sin. James 1 verse 13 seems to on the surface to contradict this verse. However, I think there is a difference between ‘tempt’ and ‘test’.  The nuances in the Greek and the Hebrew are very important. One should read the ‘test’ of Abraham concerning his only son.  Perhaps one way forward is to say that God ‘tests’ but we ‘tempt’ ourselves by our dark motives.  The context is of the highest importance.  As I said this seems to be a contradiction only on the surface.  The grounds of motivation are different.

Summary

In chapters one and two the writer works through some themes which are found in the OT.  The conclusion the writer reached was that Jesus is the Messiah the king of Israel and greater than the angels.

The angels belonged firmly in the ‘creatures’ part of reality not on the divine side of the reality even though they were in God’s presence himself.

In summary then, Jesus is greater than the angels and only for a ‘brief period of time’ was he made ‘lower’.  ‘Son of God’ needs to be understood as a title which in its truest sense is explained in the life and teachings of Christ.

Jesus is Briefly Humbled on the line of the infinite finite. Hebrews chapter 2 verses 9-13.

May 15, 2021

But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honour, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone. For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings. For both He who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one Father; for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying,

“I WILL PROCLAIM YOUR NAME TO MY BRETHREN,

“I WILL PUT MY TRUST IN HIM.”

IN THE MIDST OF THE CONGREGATION I WILL SING YOUR PRAISE.”

And again,

And again,

“BEHOLD, I AND THE CHILDREN WHOM GOD HAS GIVEN ME.” Hebrews 2:9-13 NASB

Verse nine

When we think of eternity, it is a long time, and our understanding breaks down.  On this line where time is meaningless to the human mind because the human mind cannot grasp it; although mathematicians have a symbol of infinity and it is used in calculus, the real true infinity in which Jesus Christ is from makes these marks and thoughts of humanity on a piece of paper or technical device a grasping after thin air.  The human mind cannot and will never be able to grasp this true infinity from above because by nature we are from the earth and finite. Yet even though this is the case for a period of about 33 years, the second person of the trinity Jesus Christ, put on humanity and became a man.  As Apollos says.

“But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels” …

For the true follower of Christ, In Jesus Christ we have the fullness of God and the fullness of man in a man a man from Nazareth who lived among us.  It is a mystery that can only be grasped by faith and that by submissive faith.  This is not a renunciation of reason, on the contrary this reason is built upon the facts and on the eyewitnesses that actually met Jesus Christ our Lord. Some would argue that Jesus is ‘a’ god.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. John 1

And in Greek

 Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. John 1

In the Greek, God and Word are in the nominative.  Actually, the Word has the definite article.  One would have to do grammatical summersaults, reject the history of this sentence, change the word order and then to add an indefinite article to this that does not exist.  No, my friend, John and Apollos agree that the Word was God or God was the Word. 

So, we see that for a moment Jesus was lower than the angels.   The emphasis is on the ‘moment’.  He stayed there at that point for 33 years.  In terms of eternity 33 years as a moment is a very small amount of time.

We then move on in verse nine and the second part says:

“namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honour, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone.”

Here we have the Easter story and in all the meaningful creeds testify to the fact that Jesus died and rose again. This work Jesus did was at the scale of the whole of humanity.  Jesus’ grace is poured forth onto his Church.  We who believe in him are of that congregation.  His work is universal then in scope, but it is his elect that will reap the reward by grace.  If Jesus tastes death for everyone then why can’t everyone enter heaven?  God is holy, God is just, God is love.  Even in the natural order of the city streets when help is offered to the homeless, some refuse to take it.  The world is full of anomalies like this. The only way we can be saved is by God the Holy Spirit working on our spirit to make it a possibility and yet even in Ephesians it says that we were called and chosen before the foundation of the world.  What does that actually mean?  The truth is that for me election is a mystery, and I must bow down and worship a Holy God through the Son By the Holy Spirit.   I don’t even believe in free will because after the Fall (Adam and Eve disobeying God) we lost the ability to choose God because of our fallen nature.  Jesus really does understand what a universal death for all of humanity tastes like.  Even though this was the case, Jesus still obeyed the Father and went to the cross in place of you and me.

I am getting really excited with these verses. These verses are oozing the doctrine of election.  Election was only through the Sacrificial work of Jesus Christ.

Let us look at verses 10 and 11.

For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings.  For both He who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one Father; for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren,

There is One God the Father and through the work of Jesus Christ and in Christ we are brought and can stand in the presence of God; holy and sanctified because of the work Jesus did.  My brothers and sisters; Jesus is not ashamed to call us brothers and sisters!  I’m translating brothers generically to include male and female.  Let us remember that women were also disciples of Jesus and I would go as far saying that they helped the Apostles and Jesus materially with food and clothing so they could get on with their mission of the Gospel.

We finish off this section with Apollos quoting Old Testament proof texts:

saying,

“I WILL PROCLAIM YOUR NAME TO MY BRETHREN,

IN THE MIDST OF THE CONGREGATION, I WILL SING YOUR PRAISE.”

And again,

“I WILL PUT MY TRUST IN HIM.”

And again,

“BEHOLD, I AND THE CHILDREN WHOM GOD HAS GIVEN ME.”

The first quotation is from Psalm 22 verse 22.  This comes from a Messianic Psalm.  That Psalm begins in verse one with: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?

Far from my deliverance are the words of my groaning.” Psalms 22:1 This saying is what came from the lips of Jesus while on the cross.   The second quote seems to be from Isaiah 8 18 with echoes of psalm 18 2 That God is the refuge of the believer, the one who trusts in God.  These verses were not chosen haphazardly and if anyone says such a thing, you ought not to believe them.

Reflection

God the Son is the second person of the economic Trinity.  God came down to earth and became a man.  The infinite clothed himself with limitedness. His death in scope is enough for the whole of the human race.  Man does not have free will because of the fall and is completely helpless.  The Holy Spirit works in the lives of people by faith and grace alone in Jesus Christ.  Our election is in Jesus Christ.  Election is a mystery and only God understands it but by faith we rely on God and his love to bring us home to heaven through the Son by the Holy Spirit.   The reason why we can never understand it (but are able to enjoy it through gratitude to a God of love); is because these decisions were done on the infinite line of the knowledge of God within the economy of God.  Even quantum computers or artificial intelligence cannot penetrate into this wisdom.

It may be that you are thinking about these spiritual things and you have not bowed the knee to a Holy God.  I would advise you to seek out your local mainline church and ask for guidance.  If you really do see yourself as a sinner someone who has turned their back on God.  You need to repent.  What that means is that you ask God to forgive you and accept that Jesus died personally for you and your sin.  And you need to believe that Jesus rose from the dead.  That this resurrection is also for you personally in Jesus Christ. That you make this your confession by faith.  Obviously, you might not know what a Christian is supposed to be like.   I would encourage you to join a church and be baptized and read your Bible, to begin with, the New Testament and then the Old Testament too. 

Jesus is the King whom God sent into the world, for a moment was made lower than angels but now glorified in Him we have eternal life.

May 8, 2021

Hebrews chapter 2 verses 5 upto 8b. Part 1

When I have the text I will be rmoving the verse numbers because a robot turns my text into speech to that you can listen to.  It may take a couple of days before it comes up on spotify and other platforms.

First let us read the text; 

Earth Subject to Man

For He did not subject to angels the world to come, concerning which we are speaking. But one has testified somewhere, saying,

“WHAT IS MAN, THAT YOU REMEMBER HIM?

OR THE SON OF MAN, THAT YOU ARE CONCERNED ABOUT HIM?

 “YOU HAVE MADE HIM FOR A LITTLE WHILE LOWER THAN THE ANGELS;

YOU HAVE CROWNED HIM WITH GLORY AND HONOR,

AND HAVE APPOINTED HIM OVER THE WORKS OF YOUR HANDS;

YOU HAVE PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET.”

For in subjecting all things to him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to him.

Jesus Briefly Humbled

But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone.   For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings. For both He who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one Father; for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying,

“I WILL PROCLAIM YOUR NAME TO MY BRETHREN,

IN THE MIDST OF THE CONGREGATION I WILL SING YOUR PRAISE.”

And again,

“I WILL PUT MY TRUST IN HIM.”

And again,

“BEHOLD, I AND THE CHILDREN WHOM GOD HAS GIVEN ME.” From Hebrews 2:5-13 NASB

The writer places Psalm 8 in context of the Son. Although the subject of the Psalm (man) may seem to be in the context of the whole of the human race.  Using the methodology of his day for Biblical interpretation this was ok. 

I am going to give the writer a name from now on and I am going to call him Apollos.  There is no hard evidence, but some theologians think that he is the best fit.  I’m taking this line because it is easier to say ‘Apollos’ than to say ‘the writer to the Hebrews’.  

These verses that Apollos quotes are straight from Psalm 8.  Psalm is very important because it is a Messianic Psalm.  The kings of Israel in the old days were anointed with oil. (Mashiach). The Apostles inferred that Jesus was The King of Israel the anointed of God.  Apollos and Paul are in complete agreement here but first let us work through the text.  Apollos proved that all the angels were our servants.  That Jesus is greater than the angels and because of this the only legitimate claimant is the King of Israel; That everything was subjected to his Christ.  Having said that the Christ was to be made in subjection for a while under the angels but not for all time.  I wrote a while ago.

The phrase in the Greek ‘a little while’ can also in the Greek be ‘a little than’.  It has been understood both spatially and from a time perspective.  However, I have to say that a pure spatial understanding would make a mockery of Hebrews 1 where Jesus is made greater than the angels. The ‘time aspect is needed to understand that Christ has only been made less than the angels for a short period. This was in accordance with the scriptures that it was for the sake of the salvation of humanity that he was made a little lower.

So then, let us keep in mind when we read this section of Hebrews.  In verse 8b Apollos writes.

“For in subjecting all things to him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to him. Hebrews 2:8b”

Obviously even today we don’t see everything subjected to Christ, but we do know that at the end of times this will actually take place. Calvin says the same type of thing (Calvin’s new testament commentaries, Eerdmans, Hebrews 1, and 2 Peter, pages 23 – 24).  As evidence for this understanding Calvin Turns to 1 Corinthians 15. 28 I came to the same conclusion earlier and Apollos and Paul are in total agreement although they have a different way of saying it.

“ For HE HAS PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET. But when He says, “All things are put in subjection,” it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him. When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all. 1 Corinthians 15:27-28”

I touched on the above in “When time becomes unnecessary, we will be sharing in the Trinitarian Divine Life for eternity!”

“The Apostolic teaching is that Christ indeed did rise from the dead according to God’s plan and one day we will also rise from the dead.  The day will come when Jesus as the King will hand over everything to the Father including the greatest enemy ‘death’.  Then Christ will subject himself to the Father and the Church in Christ will be brought into the Trinitarian Divine Life and everything will be Perfect.” Taken from my Corinthian lessons in wordpress

This theology my friends has a name ‘recapitulation’ and here it is stated in a different style. 

I also think Irenaeus helps us understand these truths as he wrote;

“As it has been clearly demonstrated that the Word, who existed in the beginning with God, by whom all things were made, who was also always present with mankind, was in these last days, according to the time appointed by the Father, united to His own workmanship, inasmuch as He became a man liable to suffering, [it follows] that every objection is set aside of those who say, “If our Lord was born at that time, Christ had therefore no previous existence.” For I have shown that the Son of God did not then begin to exist, being with the Father from the beginning; but when He became incarnate, and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam—namely, to be according to the image and likeness of God—that we might recover in Christ Jesus.

And again Irenaeus writes;

He has therefore, in His work of recapitulation, summed up all things, both waging war against our enemy, and crushing him who had at the beginning led us away captives in Adam, and trampled upon his head, as thou canst perceive in Genesis that God said to the serpent, “And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; He shall be on the watch for (observabit) thy head, and thou on the watch for His heel.” For from that time, He who should be born of a woman, [namely] from the Virgin, after the likeness of Adam, was preached as keeping watch for the head of the serpent. This is the seed of which the apostle says in the Epistle to the Galatians, “that the law of works was established until the seed should come to whom the promise was made.” This fact is exhibited in a still clearer light in the same Epistle, where he thus speaks: “But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman.” For indeed the enemy would not have been fairly vanquished, unless it had been a man [born] of a woman who conquered him. For it was by means of a woman that he got the advantage over man at first, setting himself up as man’s opponent. And therefore does the Lord profess Himself to be the Son of man, comprising in Himself that original man out of whom the woman was fashioned (ex quo ea quae secundum mulierem est plasmatio facta est), in order that, as our species went down to death through a vanquished man, so we may ascend to life again through a victorious one; and as through a man death received the palm [of victory] against us, so again by a man we may receive the palm against death.

https://earlychurchtexts.com/public/irenaeus_on_recapitulation_in_christ.htm

I was planning to go to the end of verse 13 but I covered a lot of ground up to verse 8b.

Reflection

Who is Jesus?

 Where did Jesus come from?

How does our salvation fit into this?

We have come to the conclusion that Jesus is God who became a human being.  For a little while he lived with us and he communed with us. He is the King of Israel.

For the last question I can say that our salvation is dependent on his being, person and actions from the economic eternal Trinity. 

Run, run away from evil and pay homage to the Son from whom by the Holy Spirit we receive grace in abundance… Hebrews 2. 1-5

May 2, 2021

The opening verses.

Listen Carefully!

“1 For this reason we must pay much closer attention to what we have heard, so that we do not drift away from it. 2 For if the word spoken through angels proved unalterable, and every transgression and disobedience received a just penalty, 3 how will we escape if we neglect so great a salvation? After it was at the first spoken through the Lord, it was confirmed to us by those who heard, 4 God also testifying with them, both by signs and wonders and by various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His own will.” Hebrews 2:1-4

A lot of angels were also locked up in judgement.  Let us take scripture more seriously and see what God is trying to teach us.   Let us come in humility and find out God’s message to us in the 21st century.  In Jesus Christ, God became a man.  The whole of the Trinity is involved in this salvific movement and by faith we can be the recipients of this gift of grace. (salvation)

When looking at verses 1-4 his attention focuses on the situation of the readers. The majority of the time the writer is expounding the teachings about the Christ but at crucial moments he is challenging the readers and asks them where their allegiance lies.  The writer at this point has proven that Jesus is greater than the angels and that Jesus has come from God as his representative here on earth. The readers are invited to consider the evidence. They can come to only one conclusion, Jesus is the Christ.

Preliminary remarks on Hebrews chapter 2 verses 5-8.

But discussion of the Son does not stay on the side of the divine.  The eternal son takes on flesh and becomes a human being. As it says ‘for a little while’, the Son was made a little lower than the angels.  The eternal Son is not only made a little lower than the angels, but he is a man.

As a man he faces all the problems that men and women do. The eternal Son as a man suffers even the greatest evil itself ‘death’.  In his death there is real forgiveness from our sin and for the Jewish Christians there is real comfort (verse 18).

The writer to the Hebrews uses proof texts which his readers would have understood.   Psalm 8 verses 4-6, Psalm 22 verse22, Isaiah 8 verses 17-18 et al.

Some theologians have argued that the early Christians used the sacred texts to fit there circumstances in a haphazard way (I am thinking of Heikki Häkkinen at this point).

Obviously, the book of Hebrews shows this not to be the case.  The writer chooses and selects proof texts very carefully for the purpose of his argument. There is nothing haphazard about the choices of the above scripture quotations. These were well known Messianic texts that were used in the Jewish community in the first century AD.

I also must disagree with the theory than Pannenberg puts forward concerning history. Old facts are modified by newer facts as history progresses to the eschaton (thesis/antithesis/synthesis).  Christianity and Judaism are both in a lot of ways remembering religions not progressive religions. The Jews every year celebrate the Passover as a significant point in their history. Christians remember the sacrifice of Jesus every Sunday at Holy communion. ‘Do this in remembrance of me’.  A fuller explanation is needed such as progressive revelation. God reveals a little more of his nature as time moves on.

Although the OT was interpreted in light of the Christ there is nothing arbitrary about the way the writer used the scriptures.  These were texts that pointed to the Christ and were believed to point to the Christ even before the time that the Christ was born (a road map to the king). Contrary to Häkkinen’s point of view.

On the other hand the writer is ‘reminding’ the readers of the importance of these scriptures. Contrary to what Pannenberg might emphasize.  These texts take on decisive meaning and there is nothing arbitrary about them.

In layman’s terms:

As I said Jesus is really the eternal son which I spoke to you centuries ago. Now that the Son has come you can see how all these scriptures fall into place.

In other words, the prophecies have bee fulfilled not modified.  In Hegelianism older facts can be modified by newer facts by contingent accident. Revelation is not accidental it has a purpose from the heart of God.

Reflection

As Christians we really do need to understand what Jesus taught us. We have various tools to do this.

  1. We do this by genuine prayer asking God to help us understand and to walk in his love. 
  2. Reading the scriptures and prayerfully searching the scriptures.

For us we are blessed to have such teachers of the Old Testament who have opened up its meaning to us in the book of Hebrews.  John Owen wrote a tome on the book of Hebrews; under the surface it is a very rich book. Perhaps you have become a believer recently or have been a believer for decades; This book is speaking to you.  The letter is explaining who Jesus is.  We do well to do the same.