Archive for September, 2021

Apollos’ use of Anaphora in Hebrews chapter 11 and his use of ‘By Faith’ in this Symphony of Encouragement for suffering servants of Christ.

September 17, 2021

Hebrews is indeed the book of faith with the only general definition in the whole of the New Testament.  However, we need to be wary not to take the definition out of context.  Faith is about trusting God on a daily basis.  It is not a formula for getting rich and wealthy in the material sense.  Anyhow Later on in the book of Hebrews Apollos writes:

Make sure that your character is free from the love of money, being content with what you have; for He Himself has said, “I WILL NEVER DESERT YOU, NOR WILL I EVER FORSAKE YOU,” Hebrews 13:5

Using Hebrews 11.1 as a pretext for material gain is out of the question!

Having said that Christ has lavished us with spiritual riches that this world cannot have except the Church.  In Christ by the Holy Spirit, He furnishes us with what we need in our onward walk to perfect holiness and to be in God’s presence for all eternity.  Even as Abraham had mountain and valley experiences, he stayed faithful to God to the very end, and we too ought to follow his example. 

So let us press forward in understanding the message of Hebrews.  I really didn’t know how to contextualize this powerful message in chapter 11, so I did some background reading and I found this:

“Each example in Heb 11:3-31 is united by means of anaphoric repetition of πιστει(at to the definition of faith in 11:1, which is also connected preceding exhortation to faithfulness in 10:19-39 by repetition of πιστις 10:39 and 11:1. To the definition of faith is added an assertion in 11:2 that people of old won God’s approval by their faith, and all of the examples 11:3-38 serve as proofs of the truth of this statement. Thus, the faith exhorted in 10:19-39 is the faith defined in 11:1 and the faith illustrated in 11:3-persuasiveness of this approach is increased by the implementation rhetorical techniques” (from JSTOR; JBL 107/2 (1988); pages 257-273; By Michael R Cosby)

Anaphora can be found in speeches and poems.  This example is from Martin Luther King’s speech:

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of “interposition” and “nullification” — one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.”

This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with.

With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

And this will be the day — this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning:

    My country ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride,    From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.”  (From the I have a dream speech; https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm)

So, the example above shows Martin Luther King using anaphoric style in his speech.  Apollos the writer used anaphoric style 2000 years earlier by using ‘By Faith…’ 18 times!  It is a rhetorical device to capture the listeners’ ear.  So to get a real feel for this chapter it would be a good thing to read it out loud and to put the stress on the first two words ‘by faith’.

We can also think about the context of Hebrews 11 as Cosby says in our first quote by Cosby:

“Thus, the faith exhorted in 10:19-39 is the faith defined in 11:1 and the faith illustrated in 11:3-persuasiveness of this approach is increased by the implementation rhetorical techniques”

(From; JSTOR; JBL 107/2 (1988); pages 257-273; By Michael R Cosby)”

As we were writing our commentary, we found out that Apollos wanted to encourage the believers who were suffering to stay true to Christ.  We then hit the definition and now Apollos illustrates the way of faith.  This is a powerful illustration to these Jewish Christians.  I can imagine being in the meeting where this letter was being read… ‘By faith…’. There are 18 ‘by faith’ sayings in this chapter and I am not planning to go through every single one.  However, it is important to get the main flavour of what Apollos is talking about.   Perhaps Hebrews 11 should be read like this to take into account the anaphoric use!

By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible.

By faith Abel offered to God a better sacrifice than Cain, through which he obtained the testimony that he was righteous, God testifying about his gifts, and through faith, though he is dead, he still speaks.

By faith Enoch was taken up so that he would not see death; AND HE WAS NOT FOUND BECAUSE GOD TOOK HIM UP; for he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to God. 6 And without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him.

By faith Noah, being warned by God about things not yet seen, in reverence prepared an ark for the salvation of his household, by which he condemned the world, and became an heir of the righteousness which is according to faith. Hebrews 11:3-7

When we start to understand the text, we then start to realize how beautiful this text was for the original readers. 

Reflection

My main aim this week was to answer the question of why Apollos would use ‘by faith’ in a single chapter eighteen times!  If you have read this blog today, then you can see how brilliant Apollos was with language.  We have also learned that the book of Hebrews was meant to be read out loud to the whole congregation.  So then even after 2000 years anaphoria is still being used in poetry.   Sometimes we hear great men such as Martin Luther King read their speeches but we don’t always see the brilliance they have in getting their message across. 

Living by faith is also about persevering in the faith.  These Jewish Christian believers were suffering but they persevered to the end.  How do we compare to these saints of old?

Fun Activity

Have a go at writing three verses of a poem using anaphora! 😊

Genuine Faith, Suffering and the Tangled Web of the Greedy Fake Faith

September 10, 2021

What type of Christians are we?  What is the relationship between faith and endurance?

These are important questions for us my friends.   In the preaching of sermons, it is very popular to go straight into Hebrews chapter 11 verse 1:

“Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval.” NASB

This to me is very childish and dangerous for our walk with God.  If you want ‘a spiritual adrenaline rush’ then perhaps you can have this.  My friends there is something a lot more valuable for the believer than any adrenalin rush.  It is our relationship in Christ by the Holy Spirit based on ‘the truth’.  If you are sick; Why take a placebo instead of the correct medication.  The correct medication is the medication that will heal our wondering soul.  I am not putting faith down, on the contrary I want the genuine faith that the Scriptures talk about.  If I am going to but jewellery for the person I love, let us buy the jewellery that is not fake. So then let us read our passage and gain genuine spiritual food for our souls that will bring us closer to Christ who is the true lover of our souls:

“32 But remember the former days, when, after being enlightened, you endured a great conflict of sufferings, 33 partly by being made a public spectacle through reproaches and tribulations, and partly by becoming sharers with those who were so treated. 34 For you showed sympathy to the prisoners and accepted joyfully the seizure of your property, knowing that you have for yourselves a better possession and a lasting one. 35 Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. 36 For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will of God, you may receive what was promised.

37 FOR YET IN A VERY LITTLE WHILE,

HE WHO IS COMING WILL COME, AND WILL NOT DELAY.

38 BUT MY RIGHTEOUS ONE SHALL LIVE BY FAITH;

AND IF HE SHRINKS BACK, MY SOUL HAS NO PLEASURE IN HIM.

39 But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction, but of those who have faith to the preserving of the soul.

The Triumphs of Faith

1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval.

3 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. Hebrews 10:32 – 11:3 NASB

Verse 32

Wow, forget about the mountain top experience.  Let us start in the valleys.  These Jewish Christians experiences start from suffering.  Imagine having your best friends and family thrown into prison for something they did not do.  Imagine a world in which you lose everything. The good faithful person may have been very wealthy but because you have different religious roots, what you have is taken away by corrupt local and national governments.  It may be that that person will be flogged and laughed at as a spectacle.  These sorts of experiences really did happen to Jewish Christians before AD 70 in Jerusalem.

I found this document this Week:

4 Flight of the Christians from Jerusalem, c. 66

Eusebius, HE, III.5.3

Moreover, the people of the church at Jerusalem, in accordance with a certain oracle that was vouchsafed by way of revelation to approved men there, had been commanded to depart from the city before the war, and to inhabit a certain city of Peraea. They called it Pella. And when those who believed in Christ had removed from Jerusalem, as if holy men had utterly deserted both the royal metropolis of the Jews itself and the whole land of Judaea, the Justice of God then visited upon them all their acts of violence to Christ and his apostles, by destroying that generation of wicked persons root and branch from among men. (Lawlor and Oulton, Eusebius, 1, p. 68.)

Epiphanius also records this flight. A comparison of his account with that of Eusebius shows a common source, which is undoubtedly Hegesippus. The words in italics appear to come from him. Pella was beyond Jordan, and was then in the dominions of Herod Agrippa II. The Christians in Jerusalem could not be expected to show any sympathy to, or receive any from Jewish nationalists, cf. 19. For difficulties about a flight to Pella see S. G. F. Brandon, The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church, pp. 169–73

(Taken from A New Eusebius; J.Stevenson; SPCK; 1987; pages 5 & 6 )

This all happened in AD 66, four years before the Fall of Jerusalem. In my hypothesis then if these Jewish Christians were from Jerusalem.   (Some scholars think it could have been Rome but I disagree as you would have seen the reasons last Week)

Verses 32 -34

This is persecution my friends.  It wasn’t the first time, and it would not be the last time either. In AD 49 there was a great expulsion of Christians from Rome. In AD 62 James was murdered by someone who had it in for the Christians. In AD 96 there was another great persecution by Domitian.

 Therefore, these believers suffered and shared in these sufferings.  These believers had real confidence in Christ.   Material wealth wasn’t the most important thing; The most important thing was to put Christ first in their lives and to show real genuine love to their spiritual brothers and sisters.  Throw the ‘get rich quick Gospel’ away from you; that is fake Christianity and draws on ‘greed’ which is actually a great sin.

Verse 35

Apollos writes:

35 Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. Hebrews 10:35

This word ‘confidence’ comes up in other places as well in this precious book.  We are going on a small diversion in our route and have a look at these verses before we ramble on from verse 36. We need at the outset say that faith and confidence are linked but we need to remind ourselves that the context of this confidence is driven from the suffering that these Jewish Christians were facing.  We also need to remember that verse numbers and chapters were a later addition to our Bible.  The autographs we have even didn’t have full stops.  One sentence would run into another and unless you were an expert, one would not know when the sentence would change.  We sometimes take our Bibles for granted with the chapters and verses.

Confidence

In this verse we can see that there is a timeline.  We are to stay faithful to Christ to ‘the end’ of time.

but Christ was faithful as a Son over His house—whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the boast of our hope firm until the end.

Hebrews 3:6

Our confidence comes from what Christ did for us.  Grace flows from Christ.  Our confidence is in Christ.

Therefore, let us draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

Hebrews 4:16

It is through the sacrificial work of Christ that we can have ‘any confidence’

Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, Hebrews 10:19

So, then we can safely say that all the previous uses of confidence has been in relation to ‘confidence in Christ’

Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. Hebrews 10:35

The walk towards the faith chapter has begun. Our confidence and our faith are to be located in Christ.  This is a relationship we have of being in Christ by the special work of the Holy Spirit. The ‘reward’ is not worldly wealth, but it is to be with Christ in heaven for ever.  This is the reward. Do not in any way link ‘this reward’ to money and wealth!

Verse 36

36 For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will of God, you may receive what was promised. Hebrews 10:36

For this ‘reward’ you need endurance.  You need to trust God in Christ to help you through these difficult times.  It isn’t going to be easy.  Martin Luther King was not rich and even though he was murdered his trust was in Christ.

Verse 37 to 38 the proof texts:

37 FOR YET IN A VERY LITTLE WHILE,

HE WHO IS COMING WILL COME, AND WILL NOT DELAY.

38 BUT MY RIGHTEOUS ONE SHALL LIVE BY FAITH;

AND IF HE SHRINKS BACK, MY SOUL HAS NO PLEASURE IN HIM. Hebrews 10:37-38

These are taken from Habakkuk 23-4

1 I will stand on my guard post

And station myself on the rampart;

And I will keep watch to see what He will speak to me,

And how I may reply when I am reproved.

2 Then the LORD answered me and said,

“Record the vision

And inscribe it on tablets,

That the one who reads it may run.

3 “For the vision is yet for the appointed time;

It hastens toward the goal and it will not fail.

Though it tarries, wait for it;

For it will certainly come, it will not delay.

4 “Behold, as for the proud one,

His soul is not right within him;

But the righteous will live by his faith. Habakkuk 2:1-4

It is well worth reading the original Hebrew because you can see the flavour of expectancy.  Be aware though that he might have used the Greek Old Testament (LXX) but the ideas are the same.  Our confidence is linked to faith and suffering.  As Herman Bavinck would say, “faith is the root, and the works are the fruit”. 

To put it bluntly no pain no gain my friends!   When it comes to faith, bin any greed doctrines of prosperity and rely on the love of Christ.  It is the relationship with God and not the dollar/Euro/Sterling!

Now we have a right understanding of the ‘confidence – faith’ relationship we are ready to cross the border from chapter 1039 into chapter 111:

39 But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction, but of those who have faith to the preserving of the soul.

The Triumphs of Faith

1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval. Hebrews 10:39 – 11:2

I decided to look at Hebrews chapter 10.39 through to 11.1.  There is no new topic in chapter 11.   ‘Faith’ is the bridge between the two chapters.  There are those who would indeed turn away from the Goodness of Christ.  Apollos however in verse 39 counts himself to be in union with the other believers to whom he wrote.  Notice Apollos wrote, “but we are not…” in verse 39.  The personal pronoun ‘we’ is in the fist person plural.  Apollos also in the same verse counts himself as one of those ‘who has faith’ which is linked to the preservation of the soul. So then up to this point, these believers showed that they had faith in Christ, and this could be proved by the very fact of all the sufferings and persecutions that they were going through.

It is a serious disservice to the book of Hebrews by ripping Apollos’ definition out of its context.   As background information we can begin by saying that If you read the latter part of chapter 10 and all of chapter 11 Apollos is linking the Old Testament saints to the Jewish Christians.  The thing that holds both groups together is ‘faith’.  This is important and this is the context.

The writer is continuing in the same topic with the conjunction ‘de’ translated as ‘now’ in a lot of translations.  It can also be translated as ‘and’ or but depending on context.   The job that this small conjunction doing is continuing on the same topic hence I would certainly prefer ‘and’.  The fuller account though is ‘εστιν δε’ ‘is and’ (literally).   With dynamic equivalence we have ‘now’.  You can use ‘Now’ as long as you don’t infer a change of subject.

In English usage a lot of time ‘now’ which is an adverb of time can be used to switch topic. This has probably led to this verse being interpreted wrongly.  Let us now look at some usages from the English language:

“A1

at the present time, not in the past or future:

She used to be a teacher, but now she works in publishing.

I may eat something later, but I’m not hungry now.

Many people now own a smartphone.

A2

immediately:

I don’t want to wait until tomorrow, I want it now!

B2

used to express how long something has been happening, from when it began to the present time:

She’s been a vegetarian for ten years now.”

(From: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/now )

If you read these sentences carefully one will see that there has been a qualitative change of action or situation to something else

A1

Teacher changes to publisher

Eat something later changes to not hungry now

Inferred that people at one time did not have smart phones and this changes to people who have smart phones.

An activity for you would be to go through the other examples.

If this happens in natural English language, then possibly the word ‘now’ is not a very good word to use at this point.  It sounds good but it brings logic external to the text (eisegesis and in this case although it works, it is a categorial mistake.  Better to have stuck with the boring and wooden ‘and’)

Calvin also agrees with me:

“Now faith, etc. Whoever made this the beginning of the eleventh chapter, has unwisely disjointed the context; for the object of the Apostle was to prove what he had already said ­that there is need of patience.” (From https://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/calvin/cc44/cc44016.htm  )

Anyhow I will append John Calvin’s commentary on Hebrews 11.1 in case you want to read it.

1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the men of old gained approval. Hebrews 11:1-2

So looking at the verse again lets carry on digging the treasures.  According to one writer this is the only definition we have for faith in the New Testament.

The first section says:

faith is the assurance of things hoped for

For Calvin faith is the foundation (prop/ support) and hope is to do with the future.  We cannot see into the future but faith enables us to walk firmly even though we cannot see into the future. 

The second section says:

the conviction of things not seen.

ἔλεγχος elegchos ; from 1651; a proof, test:–

conviction(1).

I like the King James version rendering of ‘evidence’.

Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. From KJV.

Verse 2 is an encouragement to the present believers that they too have the ‘same faith’ as those in the Old Testament. 

Reflection

So, then my friends what is faith? 

The answer my friends is for us to believe and trust with our whole heart and life in the Lord Jesus Christ.  Faith and suffering go hand in hand.  If we live by faith we are going to struggle.   Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Suffered so too we will also face obstacles.  Don’t let culture with lovely, tinted glasses block our understanding of what Apollos means by faith.  Let us see beyond culture, let us see beyond our sinful natures (greed) to the majestic mountain top of service to Christ, love of our neighbours and even love of our enemies.  Faith is a gift of God and let us not take it for granted. As believer we too have the guarantor of our salvation the Holy Spirit. 

Perhaps on Hebrews 11 1 you were given false teaching.  This is not your fault my friends.  Christ really loves you.  He loves you so much that he gave up his life so that you may live into a blissful eternity.  Many of us struggle at varying degrees.  The Lord Jesus is only a prayer away so you can always ask God to give you direction in your life.

In our next blog we are going to look at some of these Old Testament heroes who lived by faith. Just like these Jewish Christians who lived by faith and then the magnificent list of Old Testament heroes, we will learn how to walk the walk and talk the talk of faith and what this actually means in practice!

Calvin’s Commentary Hebrews 11.1

1. Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.

1. Porro fides est rerum sperandarum substantia, demonstratio eorum quae non videntur.

1. Now faith, etc. Whoever made this the beginning of the eleventh chapter, has unwisely disjointed the context; for the object of the Apostle was to prove what he had already said ­that there is need of patience.  200 He had quoted the testimony of Habakkuk, who says that the just lives by faith; he now shows what remained to be proved — that faith can be no more separated from patience than from itself. The order then of what he says is this, — “We shall not reach the goal of salvation except we have patience, for the Prophet declares that the just lives by faith; but faith directs us to things afar off which we do not as yet enjoy; it then necessarily includes patience.” Therefore the minor proposition in the argument is this, Faith is the substance of things hoped for, etc. It is hence also evident, that greatly mistaken are they who think that an exact definition of faith is given here; for the Apostle does not speak here of the whole of what faith is, but selects that part of it which was suitable to his purpose, even that it has patience ever connected with it.  201 Let us now consider the words.

He calls faith the hypostasis, the substance of things hoped for. We indeed know that what we hope for is not what we have as it were in hand, but what is as yet hid from us, or at least the enjoyment of which is delayed to another time. The Apostle now teaches us the same thing with what we find in Ro 8:24; where it is said that what is hoped for is not seen, and hence the inference is drawn, that it is to be waited for in patience. So the Apostle here reminds us, that faith regards not present things, but such as are waited for. Nor is this kind of contradiction without its force and beauty: Faith, he says, is the hypostasis, the prop, or the foundation on which we plant our foot, — the prop of what? Of things absent, which are so far from being really possessed by us, that they are far beyond the reach of our understanding.

The same view is to be taken of the second clause, when he calls faith the evidence or demonstration of things not seen; for demonstration makes things to appear or to be seen; and it is commonly applied to what is subject to our senses.  202

Then these two things, though apparently inconsistent, do yet perfectly harmonize when we speak of faith; for the Spirit of God shows to us hidden things, the knowledge of which cannot reach our senses: Promised to us is eternal life, but it is promised to the dead; we are assured of a happy resurrection, but we are as yet involved in corruption; we are pronounced just, as yet sin dwells in us; we hear that we are happy, but we are as yet in the midst of many miseries; an abundance of all good things is promised to us, but still we often hunger and thirst; God proclaims that he will come quickly, but he seems deaf when we cry to him. What would become of us were we not supported by hope, and did not our minds emerge out of the midst of darkness above the world through the light of God’s word and of his Spirit? Faith, then, is rightly said to be the subsistence or substance of things which are as yet the objects of hope and the evidence of things not seen. Augustine sometimes renders evidence “conviction,” which I do not disapprove, for it faithfully expresses the Apostle’s meaning: but I prefer “demonstration,” as it is more literal.

Teachings of Hebrews on the thorny issue of Apostasy

September 3, 2021

30 08 2021

When we looked at the last section verses 19-25 Apollos was speaking positively to those who believe.  In verses 26-31 Apollos is speaking to those who hold the confession but have decided to wilfully keep on sinning.

As a bonus we are also going to touch on the authorship of Hebrews and some indicators why only Apollos from all of the candidates of the New Testament could have written this magnificent book.

Christ or Judgment

26 For if we go on sinning wilfully after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, 27 but a terrifying expectation of judgment and THE FURY OF A FIRE WHICH WILL CONSUME THE ADVERSARIES. 28 Anyone who has set aside the Law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 29 How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled underfoot the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spirit of grace? 30 For we know Him who said, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY.” And again, “THE LORD WILL JUDGE HIS PEOPLE.” 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.  Hebrews 10:26-39

When we turn to action (ethics)we need to remember that this was a Christian community.  Before we look at this section it is good just to reflect on what Apollos has taught us along the way.  The important theme is faith.  As believers in Christ, we are called to live ‘in Him’.  The writer has already spoken of the two ways when the people of God under Moses walked through the Wilderness and so often, they chose the way of unbelief.  Only Joshua and Caleb out of that whole generation made it into the promised land with their descendants of course.  The special ingredient was faith.  We are warned not to continue turning our backs on Christ wilfully and continue living as though Christ’s work on the cross meant nothing.   Apollos is correct to remind us that we shouldn’t take our Lord’s sacrifice for granted. Be careful my friends.   If you’re not a believer yet, this does not concern you because from the theological stance you haven’t come into a covenant relationship with Christ although the invitation is always open and there is no force.  Christ knocks at the door of your heart, and he invites you to dine with him into eternity.

Verse 26

26 For if we go on sinning wilfully after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins,

Obviously, all Christians sin but this is aimed at the apostates.  Those who completely turn their backs on Christ.  It is also a rejection of the death of Christ on the cross.  Apostates have only themselves to blame.

Verse 27-31

27 but a terrifying expectation of judgment and THE FURY OF A FIRE WHICH WILL CONSUME THE ADVERSARIES. 28 Anyone who has set aside the Law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 29 How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled underfoot the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spirit of grace?  30 For we know Him who said, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY.” And again, “THE LORD WILL JUDGE HIS PEOPLE.” 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

Apollos begins quoting from the great Isaiah.  Then he is reminding his readers of the legal aspects of judgement under the law of Moses.  It only took two or three witnesses to condemn a fellow Israelite to death. Apollos seems to be quoting from Isaiah:

11 O LORD, Your hand is lifted up, yet they do not see it.

They see Your zeal for the people and are put to shame;

Indeed, fire will devour Your enemies. Isaiah 26:11

Apollos gets very graphic about the role the apostates play with the atoning work of Christ. Trampling the sacrifice of Christ is a sin that will never be forgiven as it is a sin against the Holy Spirit. 

Notes

The Holy Spirit is very active in the Book of Hebrews.  In the majority of places in Hebrews, the Holy Spirit is referred to as ‘Holy Spirit’.  In two places however he is referred to as the ‘Eternal Spirit’ (9.14) and the Spirit of Grace (10.29).  Apollos definitely had a strong belief in the work of the Holy Spirit.  In the Acts of the Apostles, we find Apollos with other disciples being taught about the Holy Spirit (Acts 18:24 – 19:10).  In the passage below we see Apollos and other disciples being taught about the Holy Spirit.  As in many churches around the world today there are ecstatic experiences going on linked to the person of the Holy Spirit.  You might come to a different conclusion to me but at least have a read of the passage below:

24 Now a Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus; and he was mighty in the Scriptures. 25 This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he was speaking and teaching accurately the things concerning Jesus, being acquainted only with the baptism of John; 26 and he began to speak out boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more accurately. 27 And when he wanted to go across to Achaia, the brethren encouraged him and wrote to the disciples to welcome him; and when he had arrived, he greatly helped those who had believed through grace, 28 for he powerfully refuted the Jews in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ.

Paul at Ephesus

1 It happened that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus and found some disciples. 2 He said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” And they said to him, “No, we have not even heard whether there is a Holy Spirit.” 3 And he said, “Into what then were you baptized?” And they said, “Into John’s baptism.” 4 Paul said, “John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in Him who was coming after him, that is, in Jesus.” 5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 6 And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking with tongues and prophesying. 7 There were in all about twelve men.

8 And he entered the synagogue and continued speaking out boldly for three months, reasoning and persuading them about the kingdom of God. 9 But when some were becoming hardened and disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the people, he withdrew from them and took away the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus. 10 This took place for two years, so that all who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks. Acts 18:24 – 19:10 NASB

The notes give us some incredible information about Apollos.  In fact, after the problems were sorted out in Corinth, there is a tradition that he returned and became a leader there.   

Verse 30-31

We see Pauline influence on Apollos as well with the quote ‘vengeance is mine’:

35 ‘Vengeance is Mine, and retribution,

In due time their foot will slip;

For the day of their calamity is near,

And the impending things are hastening upon them.’ Deuteronomy 32:35

It is also quoted by Saint Paul:

17 Never pay back evil for evil to anyone. Respect what is right in the sight of all men. 18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men. 19 Never take your own revenge, beloved, but leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY,” says the Lord. 20 “BUT IF YOUR ENEMY IS HUNGRY, FEED HIM, AND IF HE IS THIRSTY, GIVE HIM A DRINK; FOR IN SO DOING YOU WILL HEAP BURNING COALS ON HIS HEAD.” 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. Romans 12:17-21 NASB

God will judge the Apostate, we are called to show love to everyone:

31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God. Hebrews 10:31

Reflection

God created us and he sent his only Son into the world to make it possible for us to find peace with God.  Unfortunately, there are those who pretend to be Christians but actually do it for other ulterior motives.  Apollos shows us that the person who tramples the works of Christ into the ground have sinned against the Holy Spirit… Could this be the unforgivable sin?  Apollos did not mince words here. 

Indicators of Authorship

For me, reading about Apollos and what he learned about the Holy Spirit from other believers including Saint Paul; If Apollos was the author of the book of Hebrews I would expect to see a strong pneumatology withing Hebrews.  There is a strong emphasis on the Holy Spirit in the book of Hebrews.  It can at times seems veiled for examples:

  1. ‘gifts of the Holy Spirit’ Hebrews 2.4
  2. ‘The Holy Spirit says’ Hebrews 3.7
  3. ‘Partakers of the Holy Spirit’ Hebrews 6.4
  4. 4 God also testifying with them, both by signs and wonders and by various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His own will Hebrews 2:4
  5. ‘the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying’ Hebrews 10:15

The Holy Spirit is ‘personal’ in the book of Hebrews.  This is a high theology of God.  A person gives gifts; a person speaks; persons share with others; language and signs belong to personal communication.  There are those who say that Hebrews was influenced by Philo but this is nonsense.  Obviously, Apollos may have used philonic language but Apollos says the opposite.  The Puritans proved that Hebrews is a complete refutation of Philo’s teachings!

https://www.apuritansmind.com/apologetics/the-author-of-hebrews-philo-and-the-doctrine-of-the-logos-by-dr-c-matthew-mcmahon/

Remember that Philo was working from Alexandria the greatest learning centre of the ancient world and he died in the ad 40’s! Certainly, Apollos being a ‘learned man’ would have learned about this branch of Judaism.  What we have learned about Apollos and why he is an excellent candidate for the writer of Hebrews.

  1. The writer to the Hebrews had a strong pneumatology so did Apollos
  2. The writer to the Hebrews was eloquent in Alexandrian Greek so was Apollos.
  3. The book of Hebrews is a refutation of Philo’s teachings, only Apollos from the New Testament could have done this because he was a learned man from ‘Alexandria’.
  4. The opening verses in the book of Hebrews is some of the best Greek, ancient or modern, only a person with the calibre of Apollos could have written it. Paul although educated does not match the standard (sorry but it is true).

These then are some reasons why I am convinced that Apollos wrote it.   I’m sure there are a lot more. 

Next time we will look at verses 32-39.  We move away from the Apostates, and we begin the run up to one of the greatest chapters in the Bible on the topic of faith.  These Christians were suffering persecution, but Apollos will bring the believers out of the valley and to the mountain top of Faith where we can see over the horizon into heaven itself.